RMIT University

Referencing for students: RMIT Harvard style

Using Harvard

Introduction to Harvard

Important: this is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Harvard is an author-date referencing style.

Harvard style requires in-text references and the reference list.

In-text references appear within the body of the document. They include the author(s) family name and the year of publication, with extra details if required, such as page numbers.

A reference list provides full details of all in-text references at the end of the document.

Additional resources

Download the RMIT University Harvard referencing guide (DOCX, 50.8 KB) Opens in new window .

Harvard referencing for visual materials Opens in new window .

RMIT University referencing guides Opens in new window .

Using Harvard

General rules for in-text references

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

Do not overuse direct quotes.

Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots (...) and another space. For example: Cannon (2012, p. 165) argues that 'changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas ... will require coherent change strategies'.

An in-text reference can be inserted at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Beginning of a sentence

Cannon (2012, p. 165) argues that 'changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas as hazard reduction, resource use, waste, pollution, etc. will require coherent change strategies'.

Middle of a sentence

In a post about the emotions involved in undertaking a literature review, the Thesis Whisper (2013, para. 16) notes that 'elation when you realise you know more than your supervisor about your topic and you feel brave enough to argue about it' is one of the top five PhD emotions.

End of a sentence

'Results broadly apply to managers in the tourism, hospitality, and service industries' (Hosany & Martin 2012, Managerial implications section).

Block quotations

Quotes of more than 30 words in length are known as block quotations.

Block quotes need to start on a new line, be indented from the text margin and set in smaller text size without single inverted commas (quotation marks).

At the end of the quote, include the reference details such as author name, year and page number(s) in parentheses.

Khoo's PhD research project in the area of architecture investigated:

the application of alternative multifunctional material systems with possible form-changing and responsive capacities. These are integrated with physical computational processes for responsive morphing architectural design as an ‘integrated’ and ‘synergetic’ entity identical to single moulded devices such as the solid-state door handles developed by the automobile industry (2013, p. 10).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

An in-text reference can be inserted at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Beginning of a sentence

Ahmadjian (2006) noted that there has been disagreement over the influence of Japanese business groups on the economy.

Middle of a sentence

Based on the novel of the same name, Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky (2010) follows the relationship between Coco Chanel and Igor Stravinsky.

End of a sentence

The City of Melbourne's population increased by 10.5 percent in the period between July 2012 and June 2013 (Martin 2014).

Using Harvard

Multiple works by the same author(s) in the same year

Identify works by the same author in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth, to the year in both the in-text reference and the reference list entry.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Jamison (1991a, 1991b) provides chiropractic information for diagnosing and health promotion.

Reference list entry

In the reference list, identify works by the same author(s) in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth to the year (for example: 1991a).

Try to identify the sequence in which the works were published. If the sequence cannot be determined, put the references in alphabetical order by title.

Jamison, JR 1991a, Diagnostic decision making in clinical practice, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Jamison, JR 1991b, Health promotion for chiropractic practice, Aspen, Gaithersburg, MD.

Using Harvard

Referencing Works by different first authors with the same family name

In a single document, to identify works by different first authors with the same family name insert the initials of the first author’s given name(s).

It is argued that ... (Fitzgerald, B 2010) but A. Fitzgerald and Eliades (2015) claim that ... .

Reference list entry

In the reference list, order works by different first authors with the same family name by the year of publication.

Fitzgerald, A & Eliades, D 2015, Introduction to property law, Thomson Reuters, Pyrmont, NSW.

Fitzgerald, B 2010, 'Creative commons', Telecommunication Journal of Australia, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 63.1-63.18.

Using Harvard

Multiple references in the same parentheses

When including two or more references in the same parentheses in a sentence, list all references alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon (;).

It has been claimed that… (Carroll 2012; Chalkley et al. 2012; Kuratko, Goldsby & Hornsby 2012).

Using Harvard

Personal communication

Include personal communication, such as face-to-face interviews, conversations, telephone calls, letters or emails, in an in-text reference.

Information about personal communication must be included in the in-text reference. Include the type of personal communication (for example: personal conversation, email, interview, telephone conversation) and the date in a date-month-year format.

Personal conversation can be abbreviated to pers. conv. and a telephone conversation can be abbreviated to tel. conv.

However, personal communication references do not need to be included in the reference list.

My field placement supervisor commented ‘… ‘ (CM Burns 2014, pers. conv., 20 April).

Ms Merrick (Melville Shire Council CEO) confirmed the details by email on 25 April 2014.

Using Harvard

Secondary citation

Use a secondary citation to acknowledge the work of an author(s) that has been directly quoted or paraphrased in another author(s) work.

In the in-text reference, include the original source of information and the source you have used. For example, if an article by Hosany and Martin cites Heath and Scott, refer to both Heath & Scott and Hosany & Martin.

Early research indicated... (Heath & Scott, cited in Hosany & Martin 2012).

Heath and Scott (cited in Hosany & Martin 2012) claim that...

In the reference list, include only the source you have used. In this example, you would only need to include the Hosany and Martin reference.

Hosany, S & Martin, D 2012, ‘Self-image congruence in consumer behavior’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 685-691.

Using Harvard

General rules for the reference list

Place of publication

If the place of publication is not commonly known (for example: Harlow) or the place of publication could be located in two or more countries, additional information is required.

For Australia and the United States, add the abbreviated name of the State.

Fitzroy, VIC or Delmar, NY

For the United Kingdom, add the abbreviation UK.

Harlow, UK

For other countries, add the name of the country.

Using Harvard

Example of a reference list

Below is an example of a reference list displaying various resource types including a book, DVD, journal article, legislation, newspaper article, report, social media entry and thesis.

Reference List

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Measures of Australia's progress: summary indicators, cat. no. 1370.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra, viewed 23 July 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mf/1370.0.55.001?opendocument#from-banner=LN>.

Carney, S 2012, 'Gillard paying price for gamble on the numbers', The Age, 26 May, p. 23, viewed 27 September 2016, ProQuest database.

Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010, DVD, Madman Entertainment, Richmond, VIC, directed by Jan Kounen.

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth).

Jamison, JR 1991a, Diagnostic decision making in clinical practice, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Jamison, JR 1991b, Health promotion for chiropractic practice, Aspen, Gaithersburg, MD.

Khoo, CK 2013, 'Morphing architecture with responsive material systems', PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, <https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:160591>.

Lewis, B & Lewis, J 2015, Health communication: a media and cultural studies approach, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Smith, P 2015, Rethinking higher education: the team is everything, Facebook, 25 April, viewed 16 June 2015, <https://www.facebook.com/pages/Peter-P-Smith/196037770427320>.

'Tackling knife crime' 2010, The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9747, p. 1118.

Taylor, CM, Karunaratne, CV & Xie, N 2012, 'Glycosides of hydroxyproline: some recent, unusual discoveries', Glycobiology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 757-767.

World Health Organization 2014, WHO recommendations for routine immunization - summary tables, World Health Organization, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://www.who.int/immunization/policy/immunization_tables/en/>.

Book

Book with one author

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Cannon (2012, p. 165) argues that 'changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas as hazard reduction, resource use, waste, pollution, etc. will require coherent change strategies'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

It is argued that strategies will need to be implemented to change how the areas of hazard reduction, waste and pollution are managed (Cannon 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Cannon, T 2012, Corporate responsibility: governance, compliance and ethics in a sustainable environment, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, Harlow, UK.

Books

Book with an edition number

For a book with an edition number, add the number and the abbreviation ‘edn’ after the title of the book.

There is no need to include edition information if a book is a first edition, or if no edition is mentioned.

Reference list entry

Cannon, T 2012, Corporate responsibility: governance, compliance and ethics in a sustainable environment, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, Harlow, UK.

Book

Book whose author is an organisation

Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author.

Direct quote

It is critical to 'get the policy settings right so that the private sector is able to resume its position and take over from government as the primary driver of economic growth' (Business Council of Australia 2010, p. 7).

Paraphrase

Business Council of Australia (2010) is in favour of stopping the stimulus and increasing productivity through job creation.

Reference list entry

Business Council of Australia 2010, Balancing act: fiscal and policy priorities to support growth: BCA budget submission 2010-11, Business Council of Australia, Melbourne.

Book

Book with no known author

In place of the author, reference the book title and the year. Italicise the book title.

Direct quote

Higher education in Australia: the facts (2004, p. 23) claims that Australia is "a major provider of international education and training services".

Paraphrasing

Australia has a growing role in the education of international students (Higher education in Australia: the facts 2004).

Reference list entry

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the book (italicised), followed by the year, publisher and place of publication.

Higher education in Australia: the facts 2004, Business/Higher Education Round Table, Fitzroy, VIC.

Book with multiple authors

List authors in the order they are listed in the book.

Two or three authors

Use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Lewis and Lewis (2015, p. 4) argue 'that the media is implicated in all health promotion strategies'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

To assist with health promotion, health care workers need an understanding of the media (Lewis & Lewis 2015).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Lewis, B & Lewis, J 2015, Health communication: a media and cultural studies approach, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Four or more authors

For in-text citations, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year.

Direct quote

Haslam et al. (2013, p. 78) argues 'that wealth accumulation matters, because it provides the financial foundation upon which to secure income...'.

Paraphrasing

Accounting numbers are used as a managerial tool (Haslam et al. 2013).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Haslam, C, Andersson, T, Tsitsianis, N & Yin, YP 2013, Redefining business models: strategies for a financialized world, Routledge, Abingdon, UK.

Multiple books by the same author

Order the citations of two or more works by placing the publication years after the author name in chronological order.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The adoption of creative industries has been driven by policy disclosure (Flew 2013, 2014).

Reference list entry

Arrange works by the same author by year of publication, with the earliest year first. Use the initial of the author's given name(s).

Flew, T 2013, Global creative industries, Polity Press, Cambridge, UK.

Flew, T 2014, New media, 4th edn, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne.

Books

Generally, an edited book includes chapters written by different authors.

Book chapter

When using a book chapter in an in-text reference, use the author(s) details of the chapter and not the editor(s) details of the book.

If there is no chapter author, use the title of the chapter instead of the author details in the in-text reference and in the reference list.

If you use an edited book (where the chapters have no identifying author(s) details) in an in-text reference, use the editor(s) family name(s) as the author(s).

Direct quote in-text

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Business groups have been seen as both the powerhouses behind Japanese industrialization and the culprits behind Japan’s decade-long inertia' (Ahmadjian 2006, p. 29).

Paraphrasing in-text

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Ahmadjian (2006) noted that there has been disagreement over the influence of Japanese business groups on the economy.

Reference list entry

In your reference list:

Ahmadjian, CL 2006, 'Japanese business groups: continuity in the face of change', in S Chang (ed.), Business groups in East Asia: financial crisis, restructuring, and new growth, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 29-51.

Edited book

Generally, an edited book will only appear in a bibliography list. A bibliography is used to list any other sources that you have read but not included in your writing. Check with your lecturer/teacher or supervisor if you need to provide a bibliography.

In the bibliography list, for an edited book, add (ed.) for a single editor and (eds) for two or more editors.

If you have used an edited book as part of an in-text reference and need to add the book details to a reference list, use the same format as the bibliography list entry.

Bibliography list entry

Lubkin, IM & Larsen, PD (eds) 2013, Chronic illness: impact and interventions, 8th edn, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Burlington, MA.

Books

E-books with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed books.

E-book from a Library database [HTML format]

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a section heading or chapter number. The word chapter can be abbreviated to ch.

'A contested concept like online game addiction has many stakeholders, and academic discourse is only one of many that influence how we think about this topic' (Karlsen 2013, p. 29).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The topic of online gaming addiction can be considered through academic disclosure and other stakeholders (Karlsen 2013).

Reference list entry

For e-books in HTML format and sourced from RMIT University Library databases, use the name of the e-book collection (for example: ProQuest Ebook Central database) instead of the place of publication.

Karlsen, F 2013, A world of excesses: online games and excessive playing, Routledge, ProQuest Ebook Central database.

For e-books sourced from e-readers, replace the place of publication with the name of the e-reader device (for example: Kindle).

E-book from a website [HTML format]

Direct quote

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number, chapter number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para. and the word chapter can be abbreviated to ch.

Shann (1948, ch. 1) argues that 'neither legal restrictions nor isolation made the "settlers from convicts" better able to read the riddle of agriculture in a climate fruitful at times but fatally capricious'.

Paraphrasing

The work by Shann (1948) provides a history of Australia's economy at the time of Governor Phillip.

Reference list entry

For e-books in HTML format and sourced from the internet, add the viewed date (for example: viewed 16 November 2016) and the URL address enclosed in angled brackets (< and >) rather than the place of publication.

Shann, E 1948, An economic history of Australia, Cambridge University Press, viewed 16 November 2016, <http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks13/1300861h.html#ch-0>.

Books

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry without an author

If there is no author, cite the encyclopedia or dictionary title and the year. Italicise the encyclopedia or dictionary title.

An encyclopedia or dictionary entry without an author does not need to be included in the reference list.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, add the title of the entry.

The ABC system is used 'to explain the genetic control of floral organ determination during flower development' (Dictionary of biology 2014, ABC model entry).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

During flower development, the ABC model is often used to explain how four genes can change a flower organ into another form (Dictionary of biology 2014).

Reference list entry

No entry needed in the reference list.

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry with an author

Direct quote

If no page number is available, add the title of the entry.

'Focused reflection is a key element of most action research models. One activity essential to reflection is referred to as metacognition, or thinking about thinking' (Adams 2010, Action research entry).

Paraphrasing

When undertaking action research, the researcher reflects on the research process and what has been learnt in practice (Adams 2010).

Reference list entry

In your reference list:

Adams, P 2010, 'Action research', in NJ Salkind (ed.) Encyclopedia of research design, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

For an encyclopedia or dictionary in HTML format and sourced from an RMIT University Library database, use the name of the database (for example: Oxford Reference database) instead of the place of publication.

Books

As details will vary for brochures, exhibition catalogues or pamphlets, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If there is no author, cite the publication title and the year. Italicise the publication title.

Brochure or pamphlet

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a section heading.

'Co-tenancy is the most common type of shared housing arrangement' (Tenants Union of Victoria 2010, Co-tenancy section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The shared household fact sheet provides information for people sharing a house or unit (Tenants Union of Victoria 2010).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Tenants Union of Victoria 2010, Shared households, pamphlet, Tenants Union of Victoria, Fitzroy, VIC.

Exhibition catalogue

Direct quote

Di Trocchio et al. (2011, p. 9) state that 'ManStyle is the first exhibition in Australia to focus on international and Australian men's fashion from the eighteenth century to the present'.

Paraphrasing

A traditional style of suit is the double-breasted pinstripe in navy (Di Trocchio et al. 2011).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Di Trocchio, P, Jocic, L, Leong, R, Somerville, K & Whitfield, D 2011, Manstyle: men + fashion, exhibition catalogue, 11 March - 27 November, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Journal articles

Journal articles with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed journal articles.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) (for example (`Tackling knife crime' 2010)).

Journal article with a single author

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Fazel (2015, p. 260) found that 'a key moment of adjustment for refugee and asylum seeking students lies in the process of recognition by peers'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Having mental health services based in schools can be beneficial for refugee students in adjusting to a new life (Fazel 2015).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Fazel, M 2015, 'A moment of change: facilitating refugee children's mental health in UK schools', International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 41, pp. 255-261.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume, issue (if supplied), page details.

`Tackling knife crime' 2010, The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9747, p. 1118.

Journal articles

Journal articles with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed journal articles.

Journal article with two or three authors

For two or three authors, use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Sustainability engineering can be broadly defined as the integration of sustainability issues in the various activities associated with engineering practice' (Gagnon, Leduc & Savard 2012, p. 50).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

In engineering, the definition of sustainable development will change as different interpretations of the concept are utilised (Gagnon, Leduc & Savard 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Gagnon, B, Leduc, R & Savard, L 2012, 'From a conventional to a sustainable engineering design process: different shades of sustainability', Journal of Engineering Design, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 49-74.

Journal articles

Journal articles with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed journal articles.

Journal article with four or more authors

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Provide scientists and scientific institutions with insights into the ingredients of successful social media engagement in science communication' (Hwong et al. 2017, p. 480).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Hwong et al. (2017) found that using photographs, videos and hashtags on Twitter is beneficial when engaging with the science community.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Hwong, Y-L, Oliver, C, Van Kranedonk, M, Sammut, C & Seroussi, Y 2017, 'What makes you tick? The psychology of social media engagement in space science communication', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 68, pp. 480-492.

Journal article

Article from a Library online database [HTML format]

Articles from Library databases with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are cited in the same way as articles from printed journals.

For two or three authors, use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) (for example (`Tackling knife crime' 2010)).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Results broadly apply to managers in the tourism, hospitality, and service industries' (Hosany & Martin 2012, Managerial implications section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The expectation of tourists ... (Hosany & Martin 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Hosany, S & Martin, D 2012, ‘Self-image congruence in consumer behavior’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 685-691, viewed 27 May 2012, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume details (if supplied), issue details (if supplied), page numbers (if available), viewed date, Database name.

Journal articles

Article from a webpage [HTML format]

For two or three authors, use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) (for example (`Tackling knife crime' 2010)).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

Ogilvy (2011, para. 13) is 'less concerned with the means, or with issues of equity, than with the aspiration in the first place'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Ogilvy (2011) suggests that the tools and techniques for human enhancement need to be selected more carefully.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Ogilvy, J 2011, 'Human enhancement and the computational metaphor', Journal of Evolution & Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, viewed 11 June 2012, <http://jetpress.org/v22/ogilvy.htm>.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume details (if supplied), issue details (if supplied), viewed date, URL address.

Newspaper articles

Printed newspaper article with no author

If there is no author, reference the newspaper title and the date and year (for example: 2 October 2016). Italicise the newspaper title.

A newspaper article without an author does not need to be included in the reference list.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Australia's aged-care system is revealing itself to be all too frequently woefully ineffective in meeting the needs of those who rely on its services' (The Sunday Age 2 October 2016, p. 25).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Aged care providers are starting to introduce new fee schemes in response to changes to Federal government funding (The Sunday Age 2 October 2016).

Reference list entry

No entry needed in the reference list.

Printed newspaper article with a known author

Direct quote

'Australians are piling into Melbourne's central business district at a record rate' (Martin 2014, p. 2).

Paraphrasing

The City of Melbourne's population increased by 10.5 percent in the period between July 2012 and June 2013 (Martin 2014).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Martin, P 2014, 'Melbourne tops nation's growth rate: population record rise in city dwellers', The Age, 7 April, p. 2.

Newspaper articles

Newspaper article from a Library database [HTML format]

Newspaper articles from Library databases with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are cited in the same way as printed newspaper articles.

If there is no author(s) for a newspaper article from a Library database, follow the guidelines for a printed newspaper article (with no author).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

Carney (2012, p. 23) stated that 'it [was not] enough that Gillard would produce the measures that Wilkie wanted, she also had to guarantee that they would become law'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The Gillard government ... (Carney 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Carney, S 2012, 'Gillard paying price for gamble on the numbers', The Age, 26 May, p. 23, viewed 27 September 2016, ProQuest database.


Newspaper articles

Newspaper article from a webpage [HTML format]

If there is no author(s) for a newspaper article from a webpage, follow the guidelines for a printed newspaper article (with no author).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'There is also the risk that the tweeting citizen journalist, unaware of court reporting laws, may include material which should be excluded' (Banks 2010, para. 8).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Guidelines for the use of social media tools in courts ... (Banks 2010).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Banks, D 2010, 'Tweeting in court: why reporters must be given guidelines', The Guardian, 15 December, viewed 25 November 2015, <http://www.theguardian.com/law/2010/dec/15/tweeting-court-reporters-julian-assange>.

Social media or webpages

Blog or blog post

A blog or blog post is usually referenced as you would a webpage.

If there is no author(s) name use the username instead (for example: Thesis Whisperer).

List the format of the entry (for example: blog or blog post).

If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (for example: 13 January, 4.25 am).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

Include the location of the direct quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

In a post about the emotions involved in undertaking a literature review, the Thesis Whisperer (2013, para. 16) notes that one of the top five PhD emotions is 'elation when you realise you know more than your supervisor about your topic and you feel brave enough to argue about it'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

When undertaking a literature review ... (Thesis Whisperer 2013).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Thesis Whisperer 2013, 'Wormhole literature', The Thesis Whisperer, blog post, 3 April, viewed 8 January 2014, <http://thesiswhisperer.com/2013/04/03/the-wormhole-incident/>.

Webber, S & Boon, S 2006, Information literacy blog, blog, viewed 8 January 2014, <http://information-literacy.blogspot.com>.

Social media or webpages

Social media entry

Social media is usually referenced as you would a website.

If there is no author’s name use the username instead.

List the name of the platform (for example: Facebook, Twitter).

If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (for example: 13 January, 4.25 am).

For social media accounts that are not publicly accessible (for example: a private Facebook page), the social media entry should be referenced as personal communication.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

In relation to the Supreme Court vacancy in the United States, the Barack Obama Twitter account stated that 'it [is] time for Senate leaders to put politics aside and fill the Supreme Court vacancy' (Obama 2016).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Peter Smith (2015) updated his Facebook page on the 25 April with a link to...

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Obama, B 2016, It’s time for Senate leaders to put politics aside …, Twitter, 17 May, viewed 19 May 2016, <https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/732589315478290432>.

Smith, P 2015, Rethinking higher education the team is everything, Facebook, 25 April, viewed 16 June 2015, <https://www.facebook.com/pages/Peter-P-Smith/196037770427320>.

Social media or webpages

Webpage or document

As details will vary for webpages or web documents, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If a webpage or web document does not have an author(s) (individual or corporate), start with the title of the document in italics followed by the date. If there is no date, use n.d.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

The tables are intended 'to aid technical decisions with respect to the national vaccination schedule' (World Health Organization 2014, para. 8).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

For immunization program recommendations refer to the information maintained by the World Health Organization (World Health Organization 2014).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

World Health Organization 2014, WHO recommendations for routine immunization - summary tables, World Health Organization, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://www.who.int/immunization/policy/immunization_tables/en/>.

Author is an organisation

The author may be the same as the organisation hosting the website.

The author can also be the publisher. For example: World Health Organization.

Unknown date

The abbreviation n.d. may be used where there is no known date.

Reports and standards

ABS report from the ABS website

For author details, use the full name of the Australian Bureau of Statistics rather than the abbreviation ABS.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'A major driving force in human activity is the desire for optimal health, better living conditions and improved quality of life' (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Society section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) the life expectancy for a female born in 2010 will be 84 years.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Measures of Australia's progress: summary indicators, cat. no. 1370.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra, viewed 23 July 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mf/1370.0.55.001?opendocument#from-banner=LN>.

For an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) report with full-page format/imaging (PDF), no need to include a viewed date or URL address as part of the reference list entry.

Reports and standards

Government or organisation report from a website

Government reports may include departmental reports, reports of commissions of inquiry, committees of review and committees of parliament.

As details will vary for government or organisation reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

This 'review provides an opportunity to reflect on the lessons that can be learned from the first five years of the TEQSA Act’s operation' (Department of Education and Training 2016, para. 3).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The review into the impact of the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Act 2011 will examine ... (Department of Education and Training 2016).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Department of Education and Training 2016, Review of the impact on the higher education sector of the TEQSA Act, viewed 16 December 2016, <https://www.education.gov.au/review-impact-higher-education-sector-teqsa-act>.

For a Government or organisation report with full-page format/imaging (PDF), no need to include a viewed date or URL address as part of the reference list entry.

Amnesty International 2017, Europe a perfect storm: the failure of European policies in the central Mediterranean, Amnesty International, London.

Reports and Standards

Standard from the Standards Australia database

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'For single or upper storey construction, the spacing of bracing elements, measured at right angles to elements, shall not exceed 9000 mm' (Standards Australia 2010, p. 11).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

For procedures and practices relating to timber framed constructions in non-cyclonic areas refer to ... (Standards Australia 2010).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Standards Australia 2010, Residential timber-framed construction - non-cyclonic areas, AS 1684.2-2010, viewed 28 September 2012, SAI Global database.

Reports and Standards

Company, industry or market report from a Library database

As details will vary for company, industry or market reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Internet services are provided via dial-up, integrated services digital network (ISDN) and fixed broadband connections' (Lo 2016, p. 2).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Lo (2016) claims that the industry will increase ...

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Lo, B 2016, Internet service providers in Australia, report No. J5911, industry report, IBISWorld, viewed 6 October 2016, IBISWorld database.

Where there is no author, use the organisation responsible for the report.

MarketLine Limited 2015, Credit cards in Canada, industry profile, MarketLine Limited, viewed 6 October 2016, MarketLine database.

Company, industry or market report from a website

As details will vary for company, industry or market reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Where there is no author, use the name of the company or organisation responsible for the report.

Direct quote

'Coles is our largest consumer business and its relationship with food and grocery suppliers in Australia continues to be the focus of some attention' (WesFarmers Limited 2015, Sourcing section).

Paraphrase

Wesfarmers Limited (2015) are wanting to engage with the community to limit environmental impact.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Wesfarmers Limited 2015, Sustainability report 2015, company report, Wesfarmers Limited, viewed 16 April 2016, <http://sustainability.wesfarmers.com.au/>.

Audiovisual materials

DVD film or television program

Reference the title of the film or television program in italics followed by the date of the production.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the film or television program. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

'You [are] not an artist, Coco. You [are] a shopkeeper' (Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Based on the novel of the same name, Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky (2010) follows the relationship between Coco Chanel and Igor Stravinsky.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010, DVD, Madman Entertainment, Richmond, VIC, directed by Jan Kounen.

When plans change (part 1) 2016, television program, Australian Story, ABC TV, Sydney, 17 October.

Audiovisual materials

Podcast

If the author(s) of the podcast is unknown, reference the title of the podcast and the year of the broadcast. Italicise the podcast title.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

Isherwood (2012) stated that 'problem solving drives creativity ...'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

In a guest lecture, Isherwood (2012) spoke about creativity in advertising.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Isherwood, B 2012, Where ideas come from, podcast, 12 September, viewed 5 June 2014, <http//itunesu.rmit.edu.au/node/862>.

Fidler, R 2016, Tim Ferguson: why comedy is not just for laughs, radio program, 702 ABC Radio, Sydney, 16 December, viewed 20 December 2016, <https://radio.abc.net.au/programitem/pe8LwEmpX3>.

Audiovisual materials

Streaming video / YouTube video

If the author(s) (individual or corporate) of the streaming/YouTube video is known, reference the video by the author(s) family or corporate name and the year of the video.

If the author(s) (individual or corporate) of the streaming/YouTube video is unknown, reference the title of the video (in italics) and the year of the video.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the video. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

'Subject guides are mini-websites for each subject area. They show you all the best places to look for information on what [you are] studying' (RMIT University 2014).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Design & thinking: a documentary on design thinking (2012) explores the concept of what is design thinking.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Design & thinking: a documentary on design thinking 2012, streaming video, Muris Media, San Francisco, viewed 23 March 2014, <https://rmit-kanopystreaming-com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/video/design-and-thinking>.

RMIT University 2014, What’s a library subject guide?, YouTube, 8 October, RMIT University, Melbourne, viewed 18 April 2016, <https://youtu.be/IXo58MojuKI>.

Audiovisual materials

Sound Recording

If the author(s) (artists or band) of the sound recording (for example: album or CD) is known, reference the sound recording by the artist(s) family name or band name and the year of the sound recording.

If the author(s) (artists or band) of the sound recording is unknown, reference the title of the sound recording (in italics) and the year of the sound recording.

Generally, the title of the album or CD will be included in the in-text reference. However, if you have only listened to a single track, then the name of the single track will be included in the in-text reference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the sound recording. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

The first line of Patti Smith's version of Gloria 'Jesus died for somebody's sins but not mine' is interpreted as ... (Smith 1975).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Patti Smith’s 1975 album Horses is interpreted as her introduction to the punk movement (Smith 1975).

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Album or CD

Smith, P 1975, Horses, sound recording, Arista Records LLC, New York.

Single track

Smith, P 1975, Gloria, sound recording, Arista Records LLC, New York.

Online

Smith, P 1975, Horses, sound recording, Arista Records LLC, New York, viewed 5 September 2017, <https://itunes.apple.com/au/album/horses/id1038568061>.

Referencing a television program

Direct quote

Dr Peter McIntosh from CSIRO explains the current drought is having a greater impact because "climate change is warming Australia, and the warmer it gets, the more evaporation you get so the same amount of rainfall is less effective for farmers" (Winds of change 2008).

Paraphrasing

Australian experts agree that the current drought is having a greater negative impact on farms because climate change is creating higher rates of evaporation of rainfall (Winds of change 2008).

Reference list entry

Note that 'program' spelling is preferred over 'programme'.

Winds of change 2008, [television program], Four Corners, ABC Television, 17 March.

Images

Image

An image can be a photograph, a diagram or figure, a graph or table, a map or original artwork.

For information on how to reference an image, refer to the Library’s guide on Harvard Referencing for Visual Materials Opens in a new window .

To reference an original piece of artwork that has been viewed, refer to the Original Artworks Opens in a new window tab.

To reference a figure or table (including data in a table), refer to the Figures and Tables Opens in a new window tab.

To reference an image (such as a photograph) from a book, refer to the Images within Books Opens in a new window tab.

To reference an image (such as a photograph) from a Library database, refer to the Images from a Database Opens in a new window tab.

To reference an image (such as a photograph) from a webpage, refer to the Images on the Internet Opens in a new window tab.

To reference a map, refer to the Maps Opens in a new window tab.

For an example of a reference list using images, refer to the Example reference list/Bibliography Opens in a new window tab.

Other sources

Generally, conference papers are published within conference proceedings, either online or in print. In most cases, a conference paper (rather than the conference proceedings) will be used as a reference.

As details will vary for conference papers, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Conference paper from a webpage

A conference paper from a webpage will generally be sourced from the conference's website or the website of the organisation hosting the conference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or a section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Focusing on self-leadership skill awareness and development, the unit thus requires that students engage in a critical self-reflection process' (Gudmundsson & Laing 2011, p. 108).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Gudmunsson and Laing (2011) argue that for a successful blended learning environment students need support.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Gudmundsson, A & Laing, L 2011, ‘Facilitating student self-reflection in a blended learning environment', in ATN Assessment Conference 2011 Proceedings, Curtin University, Perth, 20 – 21 October, pp. 107-16, viewed 5 August 2016, <http://ctl.curtin.edu.au/events/conferences/atna2011/files/ATNA_2011_Proceedings.pdf>.

Conference paper from a Library database

For conference papers sourced from RMIT University Library databases provide:

Chaudhary, B 2015, ‘Unconventional methods for space debris removal', Space Safety is No Accident The 7th IAASS Conference, Springer International Publishing, SpringerLink eBook database, pp. 49-58.

For conference papers sourced from printed conference proceedings, use the guidelines for a chapter from an edited book.

If the title of the conference proceedings contains the name of the conference, capitalise the name of the conference. For example: Geospatial data in a changing world selected papers of the 19th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science.

Wang, J, Wood, Z & Worboys, M 2016, 'Conflict in pedestrian networks' in T Sarjakoski, MY Santos & LT Sarjakoski (eds), Geospatial data in a changing world selected papers of the 19th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 261-278.

Other sources

Online dataset

As details will vary for datasets, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If available, include a reference point (for example: figure number or table number) in the in-text reference for the dataset. The word figure can be abbreviated to fig.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the material from the dataset in your own words.

Using the daily rainfall dataset ... (Bureau of Meteorology 2016).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Bureau of Meteorology 2016, High-quality Australian daily rainfall, Australia's climate change datasets, data file, Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, viewed 16 December 2016, <ftp://ftp.bom.gov.au/anon/home/ncc/www/change/HQdailyR/>.

Other sources

Materials from your course

Materials from your course may include lecture notes, PowerPoint slides or presentations.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number, section heading or slide number. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

By the end of the course, 'students will be able to read a newspaper article in Italian'... (Sample 2016, Learning outcomes section).

Giving consideration to the 'cultural, economic and social issues of indigenous communities is an important step in the decision making process ... ' (Sample 2017, slide 4).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Sample (2016) outlines the topics to be covered this semester.

The rights of indigenous people include ... (Sample 2017).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Sample, S 2016, 'Introduction to your course', lecture notes, COURSECODE, RMIT University, viewed 18 April 2016, <https://my.rmit.edu.au/portal/myStudies/#/lecturenotes/week1>.

Sample, S 2017, 'Human rights in indigenous communities' PowerPoint slides, COURSECODE, RMIT University, Melbourne.

Other sources

Thesis viewed online

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Khoo (2013, p. 4) argues that 'the idea of a responsive and form-changing architectural surface challenges the materiality of a physical architecture'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The research conducted by Khoo (2013) examines ... .

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Khoo, CK 2013, 'Morphing architecture with responsive material systems', PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, <https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:160591>.

Thesis from a Library database

For a thesis sourced from a Library database, add the database name (for example: ProQuest database) rather than the URL address.

Hallaq, TG 2013, 'Evaluating online media literacy in higher education: validity and reliability of the digital online media literacy assessment (DOMLA)', EdD thesis, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, ProQuest database.

Print thesis

In the reference list provide:

Snelling, P 2013, 'Digital craftsmanship: the augmentation and customisation of printed textiles', PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne.

Referencing for students: APA 6th ed. style

Using APA 6th ed.

Introduction to the APA 6th ed. referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

APA is an author-date referencing style. You need to follow this style when acknowledging your information sources.

APA style requires that all references in a document are to be cited in-text, and that all in-text citations are compiled in a reference list at the end of the document. In-text citations appear within the body of the document and include details such as author(s) family name, year of publication, and page number(s) (if applicable). The reference list must provide full details of all in-text citations, and be arranged alphabetically by author.

Additional resources

RMIT APA referencing guide (DOCX, 134 KB, 16 pages) Opens in new window - MS Word document for downloading or printing

APA style guide to electronic references (PDF, 2MB, 41 pages) Opens in new window - PDF document for downloading or printing (requires log in)

RMIT University Library Referencing Guides for printing Opens in new window - a full list of style guides used at RMIT

Using APA 6th ed.

General rules for in-text citations

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, use round brackets to add the author(s) family name and the year of publication, or use the author(s) family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

Note: When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Note: Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader to locate the source of the information in a lengthy document.

Note: Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional, and is NOT a requirement of the APA referencing style.

In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Direct quotes

Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks, and add a page number. Do NOT overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Note: Quotes more than 40 words in length need to be in block form – without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new, indented line, and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details such as author(s), year and page number(s) in brackets.

The difference between intrinsic motivation and motivation to learn is closely related to the difference between affective and cognitive engagement experiences. Intrinsic motivation refers primarily to affective experience—enjoyment of the processes involved in engaging in an activity. In contrast, motivation to learn is primarily a cognitive experience involving attempts to make sense of the information that an activity conveys, to relate this information to prior knowledge, and to master the skills that the activity develops. (Brophy, 2010, p. 12)

Using APA 6th ed.

Multiple references in same parentheses

List all citations alphabetically, with a semi-colon to separate them.

There are indications that passive smoking is potentially threatening to health (Applebee, 2006; Cookson, 2007; Sheldon & James, 2004).

Using APA 6th ed.

Multiple works by same author in same year

When an author has published more than one cited work in the same year, distinguish each work by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

Paraphrasing in-text

According to Dean (2017a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Dean, 2017b).

Reference list

Identify works by the same author in the same year by the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year.

References by the same author with the same publication year are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A or The) that follows the date.

Dean, E. (2017a). Practice nursing: An action plan for a disparate workforce. Nursing Standard, 32(3), 25. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.32.3.25.s24

Dean, E. (2017b). Top nursing universities fall short in new ratings. Nursing Standard, 31(44), 9. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.31.44.9.s8

Using APA 6th ed.

Secondary citation

A secondary citation is used when you acknowledge the work of an author that you have read about in another author’s work.

For example, if you read an article written by Hosany and Martin and they cite information from another study written by Heath and Scott, you would need to acknowledge Heath and Scott in the text:

Heath and Scott (as cited in Hosany & Martin, 2012) claim that . . .

Early research indicated . . . (Heath & Scott, as cited in Hosany & Martin, 2012).

In the reference list, you need to include the citation information for the Hosany and Martin article as that is where the Heath and Scott information was sourced:

Hosany, S., & Martin, D. (2012). Self-image congruence in consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 65(5), 685-691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.03.015

Using APA 6th ed.

Personal communication

Information obtained from personal communication does NOT need to be included in the reference list, and should only be referenced in-text.

Examples of personal communication include:

When citing in-text, include the author/lecturer first name initial(s) followed by their family name, and a precise date of when the communication/lecture took place.

K. Reimers' (personal communication, July 3, 2015) lecture on quantum mechanics dealt with . . .

The lecture on quantum mechanics raised several interesting points of discussion . . . (K. Reimers, personal communication, July 3, 2015).

Using APA 6th ed.

General rules for the reference list

Digital object identifier (DOI)

When citing electronic journal articles, you MUST include a digital object identifier (DOI) if stated. A DOI is a unique identifier that is assigned to individual journal articles, and provides a persistent link to online content.

The recommended DOI format should appear in your reference list as:

1. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

It's also acceptable to use the older DOI formats:

2. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx

3. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

If no DOI is assigned, include the journal’s homepage URL instead.

Note: There is no full stop after the URL, and the hyperlink is removed.

Place of publication

For the place of publication, add the city, and then include the state code or country name.

Cities in the USA and Canada need to include the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province.

Seattle, WA

Vancouver, BC

Cities in other countries (outside the USA and Canada) need to include the country name after the city.

Melbourne, Australia

Oxford, England

Using APA 6th ed.

Example of a reference list

Reference List

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. doi:10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

Book

Book with single author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Book

Book with two authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) identify . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory" (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Book

Book with three, four or five authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016).

For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Kraemer, W. J., Fleck, S. J., & Deschenes, M. R. (2016). Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and application (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Book

Book with six or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Brown et al. (2010) comment . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Brown et al. (2010) state that "spontaneous processes that result in a decrease in the system's entropy are always exothermic" (p. 167).

Reference list

List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry the central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson.

Book

Book with eight or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Lodish, H., Kaiser, C. A., Bretscher, A., Amon, A., Berk, A., Krieger, M., . . . Scott, M. P. (2013). Molecular cell biology (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

Book

Book with an edition number

Reference list

Include the edition number followed by the abbreviation ed. in brackets after the book title. If the book is a first edition, or no edition is stated, do NOT include the edition number.

Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A. (2013). Abnormal child psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Book

Edited book

An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Quality of life is defined as . . . (Schirm, 2013).

Schirm (2013) defines quality of life as . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Quality of life assessments provide a way to evaluate the impact of chronic illness on clients and their families" (Schirm, 2013, p. 183).

Schirm (2013) comments that "quality of life assessments provide a way to evaluate the impact of chronic illness on clients and their families" (p. 183).

Reference list

Author(s) of the chapter, year of publication, and title of the chapter precede the details about the book editors and title of book.

Following the word In is the editor(s) initials then family names.

Enclose in brackets the edition number (if applicable).

Enclose in brackets the page numbers of the chapter directly after the title.

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Book chapter

If the book is an authored (NOT edited) work, then reference it as a whole work, NOT by the book chapter.

For examples refer to the following relevant sections:

Book

E-book (from a database)

Paraphrasing in-text

When citing an e-book in-text, follow the same rules for citing a book in-text.

According to Crayton (2012), linear algebra can be used to . . .

. . . and is concerned with the study of vector spaces (Crayton, 2012).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the e-book.

"Any smooth manifold admits a Riemannian metric, which often helps to solve problems of differential topology" (Crayton, 2012, p. 15).

Reference list

Follow the same rules for citing a book, but provide a retrieval statement in the form of the database homepage URL.

Crayton, M. (2012). All the mathematics you missed. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/

Journal article

Journal article with single author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Musiek, 2017).

Musiek (2017) concludes that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Musiek (2017) notes that "if sleep nuclei are damaged, a robust circadian clock may still not trigger sleep" (p. 89).

Reference list

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Musiek, E. S. (2017). Circadian rhythms in AD pathogenesis: A critical appraisal. Current Sleep Medicine Reports, 3(2), 85-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40675-017-0072-5

Journal article

Journal article with two authors

Paraphrasing in-text

The ampersand symbol & is used between the author family names only when they appear in brackets.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Journal article

Journal article with three, four or five authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Demacheva et al. (2012) note that . . .

If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 541-549. doi:10.1002/acp.2825

Journal article

Journal article with six or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Coertjens et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Coertjens et al. (2013) point out that "longitudinal research studies on the change in students' approaches to learning are on an increase" (p. 54).

Reference list

List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Coertjens, L., Van Daal, T., Donche, V., De Maeyer, S., Vanthournout, G., & Van Petegem, P. (2013). Analysing change in learning strategies over time: A comparison of three statistical techniques. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 39(1), 49-55. doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2012.10.006

Journal article

Journal article with eight or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., . . . Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

Journal article

Journal article without DOI

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

If citing a journal article without a DOI, include the volume, issue number (if available), and page number(s). If the journal article was retrieved online, include the URL of the journal homepage.

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

Newspaper article

Newspaper article from a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year, as well as the exact URL of the article.

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1641732086?accountid=13552

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, online

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The debate around health reform involves . . . (Baird, 2016).

Baird (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Baird (2016) points out that "recent studies have found much of our nursing population is approaching retirement – and quite alarmingly burnt out – at precisely the time the nursing needs of a broader ageing population is increasing" (para. 8).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year of the article.

In order to avoid any potential non-working URLs, provide the newspaper homepage URL.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, print

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Official survey results indicate . . . (Parnell, 2016).

Parnell (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The latest Medicare figures, also released yesterday, show the proportion of non-referred GP services, excluding practice nurses, bulk-billed in the last quarter was 85.4 per cent" (Parnell, 2016, p. 1).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year of the article.

Include the pagination by using p. for one page or pp. for multiple pages. If the article is spread across discontinuous pages, provide all page numbers separated by a comma e.g. pp. 2, 4, 8-9.

Parnell, S. (2016, November 16). Medicare freeze no check on GP visits. The Australian, pp. 1, 5.

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, no author

Paraphrasing in-text

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in capital letters with double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 13).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year of the article.

Place the title of the article in the author position, and provide the exact URL if taken from a database.

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1785632535?accountid=13552

Legal material

Act of Parliament

Paraphrasing in-text

Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Otherwise, place the year and section number s. (if applicable) in brackets.

It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, (UK) for United Kingdom etc.

Note: Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations.

According to the Victorian Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) . . .

Victoria’s Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) states that . . .

By virtue of s. 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 110).

Reference list

The title of the legislation and year are to be italicised.

Include the jurisdiction of the legislation in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation.

If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section.

If the legislation is obtained from an electronic source, add a retrieval statement to the reference.

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

Legal material

Legal cases

Paraphrasing in-text

When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

Note: Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para. 5).

Reference list

For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.

If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieval statement.

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227. Retrieved from http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

Audiovisual media

Audio podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name.

Current research shows that . . . (Nilsson, 2016).

Nilsson (2016) comments that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Bone marrow stem cells are "the only stem cell either adult IPS, or ES, where you can take a single cell and do a transplant and functionally reconstitute that tissue" (Nilsson, 2016, 13:31).

Reference list

Include details of the producer/presenter/interviewee etc. in the author position.

Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Audio podcast].

Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Nilsson, S. (Interviewee). (2016, September 19). New technique in stem cell harvesting [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://www.podomatic.com

Audiovisual media

Video podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name.

Current research indicates . . . (Trueman, 2016).

Trueman (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"By editing DNA, we can not only eliminate the chance of disease, but also change how a person develops. . .and fundamentally understand what a single gene does" (Trueman, 2016, 2:00).

Reference list

Include details of the producer/presenter/interviewee etc. in the author position.

Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video podcast].

Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Trueman, H. (Producer). (2016, August 30). Gene editing made simple [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst

Audiovisual media

Streaming video from a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the database name and year of publication in brackets.

According to the latest research . . . (Informit EduTV, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Australia's education system is falling behind. 15 years ago our schools were ranked sixth in the world, but now we're struggling to make the top 20" (Informit EduTV, 2016, 00:13).

Reference list

Include the database name in the author position.

Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].

Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Audiovisual media

YouTube video

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

. . . anatomical structures are highly detailed and annotated (Primal Pictures, 2014).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Renowned for accuracy, Primal's hugely detailed anatomy models are built from real scanned data" (Primal Pictures, 2014, 00:27).

Reference list

Include either the author/company/organisation name in the author position.

Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].

Provide the exact URL in the retrieval statement.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs

Webpages

Webpage

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

Organisational values are defined by . . . (Early Childhood Australia, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is NOT a PDF document.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

Reference list

If citing information taken directly from a webpage include author(s) if applicable, or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year in brackets.

If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.

Do NOT italicise the title of the page or section, and add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Webpages

Webpage document

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

Preventative measures are determined by . . . (World Health Organization, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.

If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"Re-using syringes to access multi-dose medication vials/containers that are used for multiple patients can also lead to the spread of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens" (World Health Organization, 2016, p. 16).

Reference list

If citing information taken directly from a webpage document include author(s) if applicable, or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year in brackets.

If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.

Do NOT italicise the title of the webpage document, and add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

World Health Organization. (2015). WHO guideline on the use of safety-engineered syringes for intramuscular, intradermal and subcutaneous injections in health-care settings. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250144/1/9789241549820-eng.pdf

Images

General rules for images

APA includes the following within the definition of images and figures:

General rules

Note: The caption information varies slightly from usual APA referencing style.

Images

Book / Journal article

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

The data shows . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013, Figure 1).

Figure layout

A figure from a book/journal article will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

Sample image

Figure 1. Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c, d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions. Reprinted from “Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy,” by E. Fernandez-Lizarbe, A. Montero, A. Polo, R. Hernanz, R. Moris, S. Formenti, and A. Ramos, 2013, Clinical and Translational Oncology, 15, p. 453.

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Fernandez-Lizarbe, E., Montero, A., Polo, A., Hernanz, R., Moris, R., Formenti, S., & Ramos, A. (2013). Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy. Clinical and Translational Oncology, 15, 450-459. doi:10.1007/s12094-012-0950-8

Images

Webpage

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 2 . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Figure 2 illustrates . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

The diagram shows . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016, Figure 2).

Figure layout

A figure from a webpage will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

anatomical illustration showing thyroid and parathroid glands

Figure 2. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Reprinted from Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version, by National Cancer Institute, 2016, Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Acknowledgement for the use of the image in this guide: For the National Cancer Institute © 2012 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights.

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

National Cancer Institute. (2016). Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Copyright information for the Anatomy of the Thyroid image

For the National Cancer Institute © 2012 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights

License Granted: Terese Winslow LLC hereby grants limited, non-exclusive worldwide print and electronic rights only for use in the work specified. Terese Winslow LLC grants such rights “AS IS” without representation or warranty of any kind and shall have no liability in connection with such license.

Restrictions: Reproduction for use in any other work or derivative works is prohibited. Ownership of original artwork, copyright, and all rights not specifically transferred herein remain the exclusive property of Terese Winslow LLC. Additional license(s) are required for ancillary usage(s).

Images

Library database

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 3 . . . (Ross, 2017).

Figure 3 illustrates . . . (Ross, 2017).

The diagram shows . . . (Ross, 2017, Figure 3).

Figure layout

A figure from a library database will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

Sample image

Figure 3. Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Graphic of large recurrent disc herniation shows displacement of the nuclear material through a large defect in the posterior annular fibers with effacement of the ventral thecal sac and displacement of the intrathecal nerve roots. Reprinted from Imaging Reference Center, by J. S. Ross, 2017, Retrieved from https://app.imagingreferencecenter.com

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Database image].

Ross, J. S. (2017). Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. [Database image]. Retrieved from https://app.imagingreferencecenter.com

Images

Creative commons

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 4 . . . (West, 2012).

Figure 4 illustrates . . . (West, 2012).

The diagram shows . . . (West, 2012, Figure 4).

Figure layout

A figure from a creative commons source will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

MRI

Figure 4. MRI. Reprinted from Flickr, by L. West, 2012, Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/7694882446 CC BY 2.0

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

West, L. (2012). MRI. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/7694882446 CC BY 2.0

Copyright information for the MRI image

"MRI" Opens in new window by Liz West Opens in new window can be reused under the CC BY 2.0 license. Opens in new window

Images

Course materials (Canvas)

Figures and tables taken from a Learning Management System (LMS) are to be treated as a personal communication - they need to be cited in-text only, NOT in the reference list.

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

When citing in-text, include the author/lecturer first name initial(s) followed by their family name, and a precise date of when the communication took place.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 5 . . . (J. Smith, personal communication, August 9, 2017).

J. Smith's (personal communication, August 9, 2017) diagram on atlantoaxial subluxation illustrates . . .

The data in Table 5 shows . . .(J. Smith, personal communication, August 9, 2017).

Figure layout

A figure from an LMS source will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

Note: Use the title supplied with the image, if one has not been provided then a descriptive caption needs to be included.

Sample image

Figure 5. Title. Reprinted from course XXXXX1234, by lecturer's name, 2017, Retrieved from https://rmit.instructure.com/

Reference list

As the figure is taken from an unrecoverable source, it’s treated as a personal communication and therefore does NOT appear in the reference list.

Other sources

Conference proceedings

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets.

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs (up to five authors).

It is suggested that . . . (Katashev, Romberg, Danielsson, & Saraste, 2015).

For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (only if there are three or more authors).

Katashev et al. (2015) state that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the conference proceedings.

"For the data acquisition, patients were asked to perform 3 deep breath cycles with hands placed on the back of their heads" (Katashev et al., 2015, pp. 63-64).

Reference list

For proceedings sourced from a print book or e-book, use the same format for a book or book chapter e.g. author(s), year of publication, title of conference paper, editor(s), title of book in italics, page number(s), place of publication, publisher and DOI.

If the proceedings were taken from an online source such as a library database, use the same format as a book and, after the title, include where the paper was presented and the retrieval statement e.g. . . . Paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Medical Imaging, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Katashev, A., Romberg, K., Danielsson, A., & Saraste, H. (2015). Application of 3D scanner for estimation of chest movement in scoliotic patients. In H. Mindedal & M. Persson (Eds.). 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering: 16 NBC & 10. MTD 2014 joint conferences. (pp. 63-66). Gothenburg, Sweden: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12967-9

Other sources

Thesis, online

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The characteristics of insulin deficiency are . . . (Wang, 2015).

Wang (2015) argues that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the thesis.

"Both ectopic lipids and ER stress have been suggested to be responsible for the inhibition of insulin signalling" (Wang, 2015, p. 129).

Reference list

For a thesis sourced from an institutional repository, use the following format: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, identify the type of work in brackets and also include a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

For a thesis sourced from a library database include the following information: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, type of work in brackets, and a retrieval statement that includes the name of the database and the accession or order number in brackets.

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

Other sources

Standards

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the organisation name (in this instance, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets.

Needle tip evaluation methods are determined by . . . (Standards Australia, 2014).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the Standard.

"Sterile acupuncture needles for single use shall be sterilized through a validated sterilization process in order to ensure that the products are sterile" (Standards Australia, 2014, p. 9).

Reference list

Provide both the title and Standard number in italics, and shorten the URL to the homepage.

Standards Australia. (2014). Sterile acupuncture needles for single use (AS ISO 17218:2014). Retrieved from https://www.saiglobal.com

Other sources

Blog post

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Workplace stress is increasing . . . (Bratianu, 2015).

Bratianu (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Budgetary constraints may require nurses to do their work with inadequate resources, while an increased emphasis on billing and adherence to regulations can also create stress" (Bratianu, 2015, para. 5).

Reference list

Provide the exact date in brackets, and do NOT italicise the title of the blog post.

Include the form type in square brackets after the title e.g. [Blog post], and provide the exact URL.

Bratianu, P. (2015, June 10). Why workplace stress impacts nurses [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.ausmed.com/articles/stress-in-nursing/

Other sources

PowerPoint slides, published

Paraphrasing in-text

If referencing a PowerPoint presentation that has been published and sourced online (e.g. SlideShare) then it must be cited both in-text, and in the reference list.

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Chiropractic improves . . . (Haavik, 2014).

Haavik (2014) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the slide number(s) from the slide.

Use s. to denote slide number. If there is no assigned slide number then count the number of slides from the beginning.

"Spinal function impacts integration of sensory information" (Haavik, 2014, s. 85).

Haavik (2014) notes that "spinal function impacts integration of sensory information" (s. 85).

Reference list

The reference list citation should include: the author(s) name, year of publication, title of the slide presentation in italics, a description of the form type inside square brackets e.g. [PowerPoint slides], and a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Haavik, H. (2014). How to confidently communicate the science of chiropractic [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/heidihaavik/how-to-confidently-communicate-the-science-of-chiropractic

Other sources

Course materials

Referencing of course materials follows the same rules of personal communication, and is only cited in-text.

Examples of course materials are:

All materials accessed via the RMIT Learning Management System are only recoverable by RMIT academic staff as well as the students enrolled in the course, and as such should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

Lecture notes

Paraphrasing in-text

If referencing Lecture notes, then it is treated as a personal communication and should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

When citing in-text, include the author/lecturer first name initial(s) followed by their family name, and a precise date of when the communication/lecture took place.

The lecture on Maslow's hierachy showed . . . (M. Lee, personal communication, 17 May, 2017).

M. Lee's (personal communication, 17 May, 2017) lecture outlined the differences between . . .

PowerPoint slides from lectures

Paraphrasing in-text

If referencing PowerPoint slides used in lectures or in-class presentations, then it is treated as a personal communication and should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

When citing in-text, be sure to include the author/lecturer first name initial(s), and their family name, as well as a precise date of when the PowerPoint presentation was delivered.

The topic of postural assessment [PowerPoint slides] was examined and found that . . . (B. Draper, personal communication, 26 April, 2017).

B. Draper's (personal communication, 26 April, 2017) slide presentation covered . . .

Practical / Laboratory manual

Paraphrasing in-text

If citing practical or laboratory manuals, then it is treated as a personal communication and should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

When citing in-text, be sure to include the author/lecturer first name initial(s), and their family name, as well as a precise date of when the manual was accessed or referred to.

The process of transferring plasmids into bacteria was explained in the ONPS1052 Gene Technologies 1 - Practical class 2017 manual (A. Mouradov, personal communication, 4 April, 2017).

A. Mouradov (personal communication, 4 April, 2017) explains the process of plasmid transferral in the 2017 prac manual for ONPS1052.

Images

APA includes the following within the definition of images and figures:

General rules

If referencing figures from course materials taken from the Learning Management System, it is necessary to treat them as a personal communication. Because these figures are only discoverable to staff and students, they are only referenced as an in-text citation, and do NOT appear in the reference list.

For more information and examples on how to cite images taken from course materials please see the Images > Course materials section.

Other sources

Report, government or corporate

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/government department name and year of publication in brackets.

Public hospital expenditure increased dramatically . . . (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.

If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"For private hospitals, the recurrent expenditure data provided for 2014–15 are considered comparable with the data provided for 2010–11 to 2013–14" (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016, p. 47).

Reference list

Include the author(s) if stated; otherwise add the company, organisation or government department, followed by the year of publication in brackets.

As the document is a report, the title is italicised and, if there is a report number, place it in brackets immediately after the title. If the report has been sourced online make sure to include the retrieval statement.

Only identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement if the publisher has NOT been identified as the author e.g. . . . Retrieved from Australian Institute of Sport website: http://www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Hospital resources 2014–15: Australian hospital statistics (Health services series No. 71, Cat. No. HSE 176). Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129556122

Referencing for students: AGLC3 style

Using AGLC3

Introduction to the AGLC3 referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Additional resources

Download the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) 3rd ed, 2010 Opens in new window

See also the RMIT University Library Legal Research Methods guide Opens in new window

Using AGLC3

General principles

The AGLC3 style consists of:

In-text example

Recent developments in Australian law following the decision of the High Court in IceTV Pty Ltd v Network Nine Australia Pty Ltd illustrate a fundamental shift in the approach of courts regarding the importance and form of authorship.1

Footnote example

1 IceTV Pty Ltd v Nine Network Australia Pty Ltd [2009] HCA 14.

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference within a footnote directs the reader to a particular place in the cited work:

See section 3.1.4 of the AGLC3 Opens in new window for a full list of abbreviations used in pinpoint references for legislative materials.

Repeat citations

When a source is cited more than once in a paper the full bibliographic details should only be provided in the first instance.

Ibid

Use 'Ibid' in a footnote where the immediately preceding footnote refers to the same work. The exception to this rule is if a footnote lists more than one source (in this case use 'above n').

If a footnote refers to the same work and to the same pinpoint reference, simply use 'Ibid'. The pinpoint reference does not need to be repeated in this case.

If a footnote refers to the same work but to a different pinpoint reference, use 'Ibid' followed by the pinpoint reference.

Above n

Use ‘above n’ to refer to a source that has been cited in a previous footnote other than the immediately preceding one.

However, use ‘above n’ to refer to an immediately preceding footnote, if that footnote lists more than one source.

Using AGLC3

General rules for the bibliography

If a bibliography is required list all works referred to both in footnotes and in the body of your assignment, as well as all works consulted in writing your assignment.

The bibliography is divided into sections as outlined in AGLC 1.16:

A Articles/Books/Reports

B Cases

C Legislation

D Treaties

E Other

Note: Organise items alphabetically under each heading.

Note that details provided in the bibliography are almost identical to details provided in the footnotes, with the following exceptions:

Using AGLC3

Example of a bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A Articles/Books

Bodkin, Colin, Patent Law in Australia (Thomson Reuters, 2nd ed, 2014)

Meagher, Dan, ‘Digital Sampling/Remix Culture Forum’ (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review 307

B Cases

Roadshow Films Pty Limited v iiNet Limited [2012] HCA 16; (2012) 248 CLR 42

Walton v Gardiner (1993) 112 ALR 289

C Legislation

Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)

Wrongs Act 1958 (Vic)

D Other

Board of Examiners, Admission Requirements (18 February 2010) Council of Legal Information <http://www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>>

Using AGLC3

How-to videos

Refer to Swinburne University video clips:

Case law

Reported decision

Case name Year Volume Report series Starting page

Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd

(2012)

286

ALR

466

Footnote examples

Type Footnote example

Individual party names

1 Smith v Smith [1948] 2 ALR 475.

Company party names

1 Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466.

The Crown as the first party

1 R v Milat (2005) 157 A Crim R 565.

The Crown as respondent

1 Smith v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 325.

Bibliography examples

Type Bibliography example

Individual party names

Smith v Smith [1948] 2 ALR 475

Company party names

Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466

The Crown as the first party

R v Milat (2005) 157 A Crim R 565

The Crown as respondent

Smith v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 325

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference is a reference to a specific page, paragraph or other section of a decision:

Example of a pinpoint reference to a page

1 Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466, 3.

Example of a pinpoint reference to a paragraph

1 Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466, 488 [95].

Law report abbreviations

Case law

Unreported decision

Case name [Year] Court Judgement no. Full date

Rowland v Alfred Health

[2014]

FCA

2

(15 January 2014)

Footnote examples

Type Footnote example

Individual party names

1 Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012).

Company party names

1 Trusted Cloud Pty Ltd v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33 (3 February 2015).

The Crown as the first party

1 R v Coulter [2014] VSC 42 (27 February 2014).

The Crown as respondent

1 Picone v The Queen [2015] VSCA 5 (5 February 2015).

Bibliography examples

Type Bibliography example

Individual party names

Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012)

Company party names

Trusted Cloud Pty Ltd v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33 (3 February 2015)

The Crown as the first party

R v Coulter [2014] VSC 42 (27 February 2014)

The Crown as respondent

Picone v The Queen [2015] VSCA 5 (5 February 2015)

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference is a reference to a specific page, paragraph or other section of a decision:

Example of a pinpoint reference to a page

1 Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012) 22.

Example of a pinpoint reference to a paragraph

1 Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012) [12].

Law report abbreviations

Referencing case law: ‘in text’ and pinpoint references

In text references

In text reference example

“Recent developments in Australian law following the decision of the High Court in IceTV Pty Ltd v Network Nine Australia Pty Ltd (IceTV)1 illustrate a fundamental shift in the approach of courts regarding the importance and form of authorship.”

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference is a reference to a specific page, paragraph or other section of a decision

Example of pinpoint reference to a page

Universal Music Australia Pty Ltd and Others v Sharman License Holdings Ltd and Others (2005) 220 ALR 1, 3.

Example of a pinpoint reference to a paragraph

Roadshow Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd, (2012) 286 ALR 466, 488 [95]

Legislation

Statute or regulation (Act of Parliament)

Title Year Jurisdiction Pinpoint

Copyright Act

1968

(Cth)

s 1

Footnote example

1 Climate Change Act 2010 (Vic).

Bibliography example

Climate Change Act 2010 (Vic)

Pinpoint references

Pinpoint example

Climate Change Act 2010 (Vic) pt 3 div 2 s 16

Abbreviations for Australian jurisdictions

Books and e-books

Single author

These rules apply when referencing both printed books and e-books.

Author Title Publication details Pinpoint

Mathew Rimmer,

Intellectual Property and Bio­technology: Bio­logical Inventions

(Edward Elgar, 2008)

120-123

Footnote example

1 Mathew Rimmer, Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008).

Pinpoint example

1 Mathew Rimmer, Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008) 120-123.

Bibliography example

When the citation appears in a bibliography, list the family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by family name.

Rimmer, Mathew, Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008)

Other examples

Use of edition number

Colin Bodkin, Patent Law in Australia (Thomson Reuters, 2nd ed, 2014)

Corporate author

Australian Law Reform Commission, Family Violence: a Legal Response: Summary Report (Australian Law Reform Commission, 2010)

Books and e-books

Multiple authors or edited work

These rules apply when referencing both printed books and e-books.

Author Title Publication details

Geoffrey A. Manne and Joshua D Wright,

Competition Policy and Patent Law under Un­certainty Regulating Innovation

(Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Footnote examples

Edited book

1 Belinda Bennett (ed), Globalization and Health (Springer, 2008).

Book with three authors

1 Damien J Cremean, Michael H Whitten and Michael F. Sharkey, Brooking on building contracts: the law and practice relating to building and engineering agreements (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2014).

Book with four or more authors

1 Patrick Thomas George et al, Social Media and the Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2010).

Pinpoint example

1 Belinda Bennett (ed), Globalization and Health (Springer, 2008) 21.

Bibliography example

When the citation appears in a bibliography, list the family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by family name.

Bennett, Belinda (ed), Globalization and Health (Springer, 2008)

Books and e-books

Chapter in an edited book

These rules apply when referencing both printed books and e-books.

Author Chapter title in Author Title Details

William Gough,

'Securities over Debts'

in Gregory Burton (ed),

Directions in Finance Law

(Butterworths, 1990)

Footnote example

1 William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990).

Pinpoint example

1 William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990) 223.

Bibliography example

When the citation appears in a bibliography, list the family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by family name.

Gough, William, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990)

Books

Encyclopaedia

Publisher Title Date Title no. and name Chapter no. and name Paragraph

LexisNexis,

Halsbury's Laws of Australia

(at 1 June 2011)

90 Constitutional Law,

'6 Limitations on Legislative Powers'

[90-2226]

Footnote example

1 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (at 1 June 2011) 90 Constitutional Law, '6 Limitations on Legislative Powers' [90-2226].

Bibliography example

LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (at 1 June 2011) 90 Constitutional Law, '6 Limitations on Legislative Powers'

A note on citing e-books

A note on citing e-books

Articles

Journal article with single author

Author Title Year Vol. & Issue Journal Page

Dan Meagher,

'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture Forum'

(2012)

17 (2)

Deakin Law Review

307

Footnote example

1 Dan Meagher, 'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture' (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review, 307.

Pinpoint example

1 Dan Meagher, 'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture' (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review 307, 22.

Bibliography example

Meagher, Dan, 'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture' (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review 307

Articles

Journal article with multiple authors

Two authors Title Year Vol. & Issue Journal Page

Samantha Joseph and Erin Mackay,

'Moral Rights and Indigenous Communities'

2006

3

Art and Law,

6

Two or three authors

Footnote example

1 Benjamin Hayward, John Morss and Oscar Roos, 'Beyond the Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and the Regulatory Proscription of Terrorist Organisations' (2010) 35 (1) University of Western Australia Law Review, 81.

Pinpoint example

1 Benjamin Hayward, John Morss and Oscar Roos, 'Beyond the Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and the Regulatory Proscription of Terrorist Organisations' (2010) 35 (1) University of Western Australia Law Review 81, 83.

Bibliography example

Hayward, Benjamin, Morss, John and Roos, Oscar, 'Beyond the Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and the Regulatory Proscription of Terrorist Organisations' (2010) 35 (1) University of Western Australia Law Review 81

Three or more authors

Footnote example

1 Gary Edmond et al, 'Law’s Looking Glass: Expert Identification Evidence Derived from Photographic and Video Images' (2009) 20 Current issues in Criminal Justice, 337.

Pinpoint example

1 Gary Edmond et al, 'Law’s Looking Glass: Expert Identification Evidence Derived from Photographic and Video Images' (2009) 20 Current issues in Criminal Justice, 337, 338.

Bibliography example

Edmond, Gary et al, 'Law’s Looking Glass: Expert Identification Evidence Derived from Photographic and Video Images' (2009) 20 Current issues in Criminal Justice 337

Articles

Newspaper article

Author Title Newspaper (Place) Date Pinpoint

Laura Tingle

'Norway fund ponders dumping coal',

The Australian Financial Review,

(Sydney)

24 February 2015,

8

Footnote example

1 Laura Tingle, 'Norway fund ponders dumping coal', The Australian Financial Review, (Sydney), 24 February 2015.

Pinpoint example

1 Laura Tingle, 'Norway fund ponders dumping coal', The Australian Financial Review, (Sydney), 24 February 2015, 8.

Bibliography example

Tingle, Laura, 'Norway fund ponders dumping coal', The Australian Financial Review, (Sydney), 24 February 2015

Online sources

Internet source

Author Document title Full date Website name URL

Board of Examiners,

Admission Requirements

(18 February 2010)

Council of Legal Information

<http://lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>

Footnote example

1 Board of Examiners, Admission Requirements (18 February 2010) Council of Legal Information <http://www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>

Bibliography example

Board of Examiners, Admission Requirements (18 February 2010) Council of Legal Information <http://www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>

Audiovisual material

Film and audiovisual material

Title (Directed by Name, Production Company, Year) Pinpoint

A Few Good Men

(Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992)

1:15:25

Footnote example

1 A Few Good Men (Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992).

Pinpoint example

1 A Few Good Men (Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992) 1:15:25.

Bibliography example

A Few Good Men (Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992)

Audiovisual material

Television or radio transcript

Broadcaster Title of segment Name of program Full date Name of speaker

ABC Radio National,

'Using evidence obtained in search warrants',

The Law Report,

3 February 2015

(Damian Carrick)

Footnote example

1 ABC Radio National, 'Using evidence obtained in search warrants', The Law Report, 3 February 2015, (Damian Carrick) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/surfers-paradise/6028122#transcript>

Bibliography example

ABC Radio National, 'Using evidence obtained in search warrants', The Law Report, 3 February 2015, (Damian Carrick) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/surfers-paradise/6028122#transcript>

Using Vancouver

Introduction to the Vancouver referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

The Vancouver referencing style is a numbered system, predominantly used in the medical field. Authorship is acknowledged using a number to represent a reference. From the in-text reference number, the reader may consult the reference list for full publication details.

Additional resources

Download the RMIT Vancouver referencing guide (DOCX, 130 KB, 10 pages) Opens in new window - MS Word document for downloading or printing

RMIT University Library Referencing Guides for printing Opens in new window - a full list of style guides used at RMIT

Using Vancouver

General rules for in-text citations

The theory was first put forward in 1987. (1)

The theory was first put forward in 1987. [1]

The theory was first put forward in 1987.1

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you use someone else's ideas or research and express them in your own words. The way you cite the information depends on the emphasis you wish to apply.

Information-prominent citations emphasise the information you have paraphrased or quoted from an author:

. . . as evidenced from a recent Australian study. (1)

Author-prominent citations emphasise the author. Note: When citing a reference with multiple authors, list the first author, and then abbreviate subsequent authors using et al.

In his research, Jones (2) asserts that . . .

Morton et al. (2) suggest that the use of binomial control charts . . .

Direct quotes

Direct quotes are rarely used in the Vancouver style. However, if you use the exact wording of a source:

Note: Within the parentheses, the in-text number is followed by a space, then the lower case letter 'p' with no space and the page number.

"The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as ‘big data’, provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care". (1 p433)

Quotes longer than four lines should be indented in a block, in reduced type and without quotation marks:

With the increased need to store data and information generated by big projects, computational solutions, such as cloud-based computing, have emerged. Cloud computing is the only storage model that can provide the elastic scale needed for DNA sequencing, whose rate of technology advancement could now exceed Moore's Law. Moore's law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits and the speed of computers double approximately every 2 years. (1 p433)

Using Vancouver

Citing multiple references at the same point in-text

When citing more than one reference at the same point in your text, give the relevant numbers, separated by commas. Include one space between the comma and the next number:

A number of researchers (4, 5) discovered that . . .

A number of researchers (3, 6, 10) discovered that . . .

If the references have consecutive numbers, then use a hyphen. There should be no spaces between numbers and hyphens:

A number of researchers (4-7) discovered that . . .

Using Vancouver

General rules for the reference list

Titles

Authors

Place of publication

For the place of publication, add the city, and then qualify it – see below – by the state code or country name.

Pagination

For books in the Reference List, pagination (i.e. total number of pages) is optional. Note: The examples in this guide do not include pagination for books.

Punctuation for references ending with a URL

End citations with a full stop unless the citation ends with a URL or other electronic address.

Check:

Using Vancouver

Example of a reference list

Reference List

  1. Sullivan EJ. Becoming influential: a guide for nurses. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Pearson; 2013.
  2. Morton A, Mengersen KL, Playford G, Whitby M. Statistical methods for hospital monitoring with R. Chichester (England): John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
  3. Goering RV, Dockrell HM, Wakelin D, Zuckerman M, Chiodini PL, Roitt IM, et al. Mims' medical microbiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Mosby Elsevier; 2008.
  4. Colbert BJ, Ankney J, Lee KT. Anatomy, physiology & disease: an interactive journey for health professionals. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson Education; 2013.
  5. Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne, (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015.
  6. Williams G. Population health and health outcomes. In: Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne, (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 128-60.
  7. Wagner, HN. Brain imaging: the chemistry of mental activity [Internet]. London (England): Springer London; 2009 [cited 2012 Aug 24]. Available from: SpringerLink eBooks.
  8. Musiek ES. Circadian rhythms in AD pathogenesis: a critical appraisal. Curr Sleep Med Rep. 2017 Jun;3(2):85-92.
  9. Marinovich ML, Houssami N, Macaskill P, Sardanelli F, Irwig L, Mamounas EP, et al. Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Mar 6;105(5):321-33.
  10. Ogilvy J. Human enhancement and the computational metaphor. J Evol Technol. [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2018 Mar 9];22(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from: https://jetpress.org/v22/ogilvy.htm
  11. Fernandez-Lizarbe E, Montero A, Polo A, Hernanz R, Moris R, Formenti S, Ramos A. Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy. Clin Transl Oncol 2013; 15:450-9. Figure 2, Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c,d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions; p. 453.
  12. National Cancer Institute. Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute; [Figure 1], Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands; [updated 2016 May 27; cited 2016 Aug 11]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq
  13. CSIRO [Internet]. Canberra (Australia): Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; c2015-2017. Wheat a kick in the guts for fighting diseases; 2017 Dec 14 [cited 2018 Jan 15]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.csiro.au/en/News/News-releases/2017/Wheat-a-kick-in-the-guts-for-fighting-diseases?featured=F29EDEB1728C4A92B579C7A5DC28BAD5
  14. Institute of Biomedical Science. Guidance on quality management in laboratories [Internet]: Institute of Biomedical Science; 2015 [updated 2015 Jun; cited 2016 Sep 1]. Available from: https://www.ibms.org/resources/documents/quality-management-in-laboratories/guidance-on-quality-management-in-laboratories.pdf

Book

Book with single author

In-text paraphrasing

Using a case study, Sullivan (1) demonstrates the relationship between goal setting and career advancement.

Effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills are essential for nurses. (1)

In-text direct quote

According to Sullivan (1), nurses "get fulfillment from caring for others". (p29)

While the public may value nurses highly, "nursing ranks low in career desirability". (1 p47)

Reference list

1. Sullivan EJ. Becoming influential: a guide for nurses. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Pearson; 2013.

Books

Book with multiple authors

In-text citations

For an in-text citation that has multiple authors, list the first author, and then abbreviate subsequent authors using et al.

Researchers are advised that "the possibility of bias should be kept in mind". (2 p132)

Morton et al. (2) suggest that the use of binomial control charts ...

Reference list

In the reference list:

2. Morton A, Mengersen KL, Playford G, Whitby M. Statistical methods for hospital monitoring with R. Chichester (England): John Wiley & Sons; 2013.

3. Goering RV, Dockrell HM, Wakelin D, Zuckerman M, Chiodini PL, Roitt IM, et al. Mims' medical microbiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Mosby Elsevier; 2008.

Books

Book with an edition number

In-text citations

Whether you are paraphrasing or using a direct quote, in-text citations do not include the edition number of a book.

Colbert et al. (4) highlight the important role that skin plays in protecting the body.

Reference list

Include the edition number followed by the abbreviation "ed." after the book title. There is no need to include edition information if a book is a first edition, or if no edition is mentioned.

4. Colbert BJ, Ankney J, Lee KT. Anatomy, physiology & disease: an interactive journey for health professionals. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson Education; 2013.

Books

Edited book

Usually, part of a chapter in an edited book is cited in-text unless you refer to an edited book as a whole. Firstly, here is how an edited book is cited in-text and then in the reference list.

In-text citations

Cite as you would for a book with an author or authors. If the book has multiple editors, list the first editor and then abbreviate subsequent editors using et al.

Changes to the nature of healthcare as they relate to inclusive practice are outlined by Davis et al. (5)

Reference List entry

5. Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015.

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citations

In the example below, Williams wrote a particular chapter in an edited book and some information in it has been paraphrased. The Reference List entry, given the number (6), shows the author's name and chapter title, followed by details of the book in which that chapter is found.

According to Williams (6), National Health Surveys are valuable sources of information on the state of health and well-being of Australians.

Reference List entry

In the Reference List, provide:

6. Williams G. Population health and health outcomes. In: Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 128-60.

Books

e-Book

In-text citations

The information provided here is for an e-book from a library database. The rules for citing an e-book in-text are the same as for a physical (i.e. print) book.

According to Wagner (6), the cortical brain blood flow in imprisoned violent lawbreakers is lower than that of the general population.

Reference list

Include the same information as you would for a print book as well as the following additions:

6. Wagner HN. Brain imaging: the chemistry of mental activity [Internet]. London (England): Springer London; 2009 [cited 2012 Aug 24]. Available from: SpringerLink eBooks.

Journal

Single author

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. An example of paraphrasing:

In his research, Musiek (8) found that sleep and the circadian system ...

Reference list

Include the following, noting the use of punctuation and spaces.

8. Musiek ES. Circadian rhythms in AD pathogenesis: a critical appraisal. Curr Sleep Med Rep. 2017 Jun;3(2):85-92.

Journal

Multiple author

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. An example of paraphrasing:

Marinovich et al. (9) conducted a systematic review on the accuracy of breast magnetic resonance imaging.

Reference list

Include the following, noting the use of punctuation and spaces.

In the example below, the article was written by nine authors. Note that only the first six authors are listed, followed by a comma then et al.

9. Marinovich ML, Houssami N, Macaskill P, Sardanelli F, Irwig L, Mamounas EP, et al. Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Mar 6;105(5):321-33.

Journal

Article on the Internet

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. An example of paraphrasing:

Ogilvy explores the excessive preoccupation with enhancing human life: extending life to promote its longevity, and increasing human intelligence. (10)

Reference list

In the Reference List, include the same information as you would for a print journal. Note the punctuation used and where spaces are used or not used. In addition, note the following:

10. Ogilvy J. Human enhancement and the computational metaphor. J Evol Technol. [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2018 Mar 9];22(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from: https://jetpress.org/v22/ogilvy.htm

Images

General rules

General rules

In the Vancouver style, the term “illustration” applies to anything that is not written. For example:

The following are general rules for citing illustrations – whatever the type - using the Vancouver referencing style. However, the specific examples provided in this Vancouver guide are for citing images.

Using numbers

The Vancouver referencing style uses Arabic numerals, e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc., whenever a number is required. Do not use:

In-text citations

Below the illustration you have inserted in your text, add a caption that includes:

The reference list

In the reference list, include the sources of all the illustrations that you have used from another source and inserted in your text.

In general, this is the order that the references in your list will include:

Images not numbered in the original source, e.g. image on a webpage or in a database

Images

Image from a book

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 1. (15)

Figure 1 (15) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Sample image

Figure 1. Glenohumeral joint. (15)

Reference list

In your reference list, the entry for a book will include:

15. Gustowski S, Budner-Gentry M, Seals, R. Osteopathic techniques: the learner's guide. New York (NY):Thieme; 2017. Figure 4.25, Glenohumeral joint; p. 72.

Images

Image from a journal article

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 1. (11)

Figure 1 (11) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Sample image

Figure 1. Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c, d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions. (11)

Reference list

The reference list entry includes the following:

11. Fernandez-Lizarbe E, Montero A, Polo A, Hernanz R, Moris R, Formenti S, Ramos A. Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy. Clin Transl Oncol. 2013; 15:450-9. Figure 2, Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c,d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions; p. 453.

Images

Image from a webpage

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 2. (12)

Figure 2 (12) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

anatomical illustration showing thyroid and parathroid glands

Figure 2. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. (12)

Images not given a title in the original source

If an image has not been given a title or a description, e.g. a photograph, create an appropriate title and enter it in square brackets. For example, [Scar tissue on knee].

Reference list

The reference list entry includes the following:

Images not numbered in the original source

If the illustration is not numbered, give it a number according to its placement on the webpage and enclose it in square brackets. For example, if it is the first illustration in the original source, give it the number 1, e.g. [Figure 1].

If it is the only illustration given in the original source, just use [Figure].

12. National Cancer Institute. Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute; [Figure 1], Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands; [updated 2017 Aug 18; cited 2017 Oct 11]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Copyright information for the Anatomy of the Thyroid image

For the National Cancer Institute © 2012 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights

License Granted: Terese Winslow LLC hereby grants limited, non-exclusive worldwide print and electronic rights only for use in the work specified. Terese Winslow LLC grants such rights “AS IS” without representation or warranty of any kind and shall have no liability in connection with such license.

Restrictions: Reproduction for use in any other work or derivative works is prohibited. Ownership of original artwork, copyright, and all rights not specifically transferred herein remain the exclusive property of Terese Winslow LLC. Additional license(s) are required for ancillary usage(s).

Images

Image from a library database

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 3. (16)

Figure 3 (16) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Sample image

Figure 3. Graphic of large recurrent disc herniation shows displacement of the nuclear material through a large defect in the posterior annular fibers with effacement of the ventral thecal sac and displacement of the intrathecal nerve roots. (16)

Reference list

The reference list entry includes the following:

Images not numbered in the original source

If the illustration is not numbered, give it a number according to its placement on the webpage and enclose it in square brackets. For example, if it is the first illustration in the original source, give it the number 1, e.g. [Figure 1].

If it is the only illustration given in the original source, just use [Figure].

16. Ross JS. Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. [cited 2017 Sep 05]. [Figure], Graphic of large recurrent disc herniation shows displacement of the nuclear material through a large defect in the posterior annular fibers with effacement of the ventral thecal sac and displacement of the intrathecal nerve roots. In: Imaging Reference Centre [Internet]. Amsterdam (The Netherlands): Elsevier. 2017. [about 1 screen]. Available from: https://app.imagingreferencecenter.com/.

Images

Image from Creative Commons

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 4. (17)

Figure 4 (17) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Images not given a title in the original source

If an image has not been given a title or a description, e.g. a photograph, create an appropriate title and enter it in square brackets. For example, [Scar tissue on knee].

MRI

Figure 4. MRI. (17)

Reference list

The citation in the reference list will include the reference number you assigned the illustration in your text and:

17. West L. MRI [Internet]. Mountain View (CA): Flickr.com; 2012 Aug 1 [cited 2017 Oct 1]. [Figure]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/7694882446 CC BY 2.0

Copyright information for the MRI image

"MRI" Opens in new window by Liz West Opens in new window can be reused under the CC BY 2.0 license. Opens in new window

Other sources

Conference paper - Book

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for other references:

In order to improve patient safety, Benham et al. (18) created a Web-based application for use in hospitals.

Reference List

A conference paper in the proceedings of a book is referenced in the same way as a contribution to a book. It begins with the author(s) and title of the paper, followed by a connecting phrase beginning with "In:", the book's editor(s), book title, and conference information. It ends with the publication details of the book and the relevant pagination.

18. Benham SA, Amyot D, Forster AJ, Peyton L, Shamsaei A. Goal-driven development of a patient surveillance application for improving patient safety. In: Babin G, Kropf P, Weiss M, editors. E-technologies: innovation in an open world. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, MCETECH; 2009 May 4-6; Ottawa, Canada. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer-Verlag; 2009. p. 65-76.

Other sources

Webpage

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. For example:

A new wheat type has been developed which provides for greater fibre than current types. (13)

Reference List

Include in the reference list:

13. CSIRO [Internet]. Canberra (Australia): Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; c2015-2017. Wheat a kick in the guts for fighting diseases; 2017 Dec 14 [cited 2018 Jan 15]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.csiro.au/en/News/News-releases/2017/Wheat-a-kick-in-the-guts-for-fighting-diseases?featured=F29EDEB1728C4A92B579C7A5DC28BAD5

Other sources

Webpage document

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. For example:

Quality management relies on good communication, which is described as “the key to quality”. (14 p5)

Reference List

Include in the reference list:

14. Institute of Biomedical Science. Guidance on quality management in laboratories [Internet]. London (England): Institute of Biomedical Science; 2015 [updated 2015 Jun; cited 2016 Sep 1]; [8 p.]. Available from: https://www.ibms.org/resources/documents/quality-management-in-laboratories/guidance-on-quality-management-in-laboratories.pdf

Referencing for students: IEEE style

Using IEEE

Introduction to the IEEE referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) citation style is a numbered style where references are numbered [1], [2], [3] in-text and so on in the order of appearance in the body of the document. A Reference List at the end of the work provides full details of all references cited in-text. The references are ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order). You need to follow this style when acknowledging your information sources.

Additional resources

RMIT IEEE referencing guide (DOCX, 74.8 KB, 14 pages) Opens in new window - MS Word document for downloading or printing

IEEE Computer Society Style Guide Opens in new window - link to PDF document for downloading or printing

RMIT University Library Referencing Guides for printing Opens in new window - a full list of style guides used at RMIT

Using IEEE

General rules for in-text citations

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, it’s acceptable to include only the citation as a number in square brackets, or as a number along with the author’s family name as part of your sentence.

Note: When paraphrasing, the citation details can be placed at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Benson [1] states that thermal performance . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . not only does the shift toward multicore processors mean more improvements in CPU speed [1], but they also consume less power and produce less heat.

Citation at the end

. . . and therefore the rate of heat transfer slows [1].

Note: Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research on software thermal management, Benson [1] claims that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . where more processors are being produced to optimise power and thermal performance [1].

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers are not usually used as part of the citation, unless it intends to help the reader to locate the source of the information in a lengthy document.

Note: Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional, and is NOT a requirement of the IEEE referencing style.

Direct quotes

Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add both the citation number followed by a comma, and the page number(s), preceded by p. or pp. Do not overuse direct quotes.

"Due to the nonlinear nature of the Law of Dynamic Power, if the demand on the processor is light, the operating frequency can be reduced to save clock cycles, reducing power and limiting heat generation" [1, p. 82].

If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

"Many physical dynamic systems can be represented and modeled by first-order differential equations" [1, Ch. 3, para. 1].

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

"The third basic electrical element is the inductor . . . Generally, the induced voltage v in an inductor is proportional to the rate of change of current i" [1, p. 168].

Note: Quotes longer than three lines are strongly discouraged, and should be avoided.

Using IEEE

Citing the same reference multiple times

If citing the same reference within the body of the text, then use the same citation number throughout the text. IEEE does NOT allow for the use of terms such as “ibid.” or “op. cit.” when citing the same reference multiple times. Instead, if the same source is cited multiple times, then it is preferable to distinguish between these with reference to the appropriate section, for example:

Using IEEE

Multiple citations

If listing multiple citations within a sentence of text, then the preferred method is to list each citation number separately, or by inserting a comma or en dash between each number.

In [1], [4], [8] it was noted that . . .

It is suggested by [6]–[9] that . . .

It is also acceptable for multiple citations to be listed the following way in-text:

Recent studies [1, 2, 5] have noted that . . .

Specific objectives [4–7] indicate that . . .

Using IEEE

Secondary citations

A secondary citation is used when you acknowledge the work of an author that you have read about in another author’s work.

The IEEE referencing style does NOT allow for the use of secondary citations.

If a secondary citation has to be used, then the original source MUST be located and cited.

If the original source cannot be located, then do NOT cite it.

Using IEEE

Abbreviations

Month abbreviations

When citing journals, patents and websites, use the following abbreviations for months:

Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. (note that some months appear in full and DO NOT require a full stop).

Use a forward slash for bimonthly issues e.g. Apr./May 2016 and a en dash for a quarterly issue e.g. June–Aug. 2015.

Word abbreviations

Standard IEEE words when used in a reference should be abbreviated. See the ‘Common Abbreviations of Words in References’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 40–42.

Journal title abbreviations

If referencing any IEEE journals or magazine titles, then refer to the ‘IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 43–48.

Conference proceeding abbreviations

When citing conference proceedings, the common rule is to list the author(s), title, name and location (if provided) of the conference and use any standard abbreviations where necessary. For further details, refer to the ‘Published Conference Proceedings’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window p. 36.

Common IEEE abbreviations and acronyms

When using common IEEE abbreviations and acronyms in-text, then refer to the ‘Some Common Acronyms and Abbreviations’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 49–52.

Using IEEE

General rules for the reference list

General rules

Digital object identifier (DOI)

When citing electronic sources such as e-journal articles or e-books, you MUST include a digital object identifier (DOI) if stated. A DOI is a unique identifier that is assigned to certain electronic sources, and provides a persistent link to online content.

The DOI can be added to the reference list using the following formats:

1. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxx

2. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxx

3. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

If no DOI is assigned, include either the journal/database homepage URL if taken from a library database, or the full URL if taken from a source on the open web.

Note: There is no full stop after the DOI/URL, and the hyperlink is removed.

Place of publication

For the place of publication, add the city, and then include the state code (if applicable) and country name, followed by the publisher and year of publication.

Cities in the USA need the state abbreviation and country.

Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning, 2017.

Cities in other countries (outside the USA) just need to include the city name and country.

Oxford, United Kingdom: Newnes, 2012.

Using IEEE

Example of a reference list

Note: The Reference List is to be formatted using 1.5 line spacing and single paragraph spacing between each citation.

Reference List

[1]    J. L. Blackburn, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, 4th ed. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2014.

[2]    H. F. Lodish et al., Molecular Cell Biology, 7th ed. New York, NY, USA: W. H. Freeman and Co., 2012.

[3]    A. A. P. Biscaro, R. A. F. Pereira, M. Kezunovic, and J. R. S. Mantovani, “Integrated fault location and power-quality analysis in electric power distribution systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 428-436, Apr. 2016.

[4]    S. Shao, J. Bi, F. Yang, and W. Guan, “On-line estimation of state-of-charge of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle using the resampling particle filter,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 32, pp. 207-217, Oct. 2014. Accessed on: May 24, 2017. [Online]. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2014.07.013

[5]    K. A. Burke, “High energy density regenerative fuel cells systems for terrestrial applications,” IEEE Aerosp. Syst. Mag., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 23-34, Dec. 1999.

[6]    B. Lin, X. Tang, and X. Huang, "Research on fiber optic gyroscope adaptive filtering algorithm based on FPGA," in Proc. 2015 Int. Conf. Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), Los Alamitos, CA, USA, pp. 1354-1357.

[7]    P. Windle, “Engineering consulting in Australia,” IBISWorld, Melbourne, Australia, Rep. no. M6923, Feb. 2017. Accessed on June 15, 2017. [Online]. Available: IBISWorld database

[8]    Energy Networks Australia, Judicial Review of Energy Network Regulatory Decisions, May 30, 2017. Accessed on: June 1, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.energynetworks.com.au/news/blog/judicial-review-energy-network-regulatory-decisions

[9]    KNH Productions, N is for Nanotechnology, 2006. Accessed on: May 12, 2017. [Streaming video]. Available: Kanopy Streaming database

[10]  Y. Ren et al., Microstructures of cold-sprayed titanium before and after heat treatment, vol. 7, Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Data Collection, 2017. Accessed on: May 5, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://doi.org/10.4225/08/5913e0247881b

[11]  Multinode Temperature Sensor, by K. Deby. (2016, Dec. 13). Patent 2016102110. Accessed on: Mar. 29, 2017. [Online]. Available: AustPat database

[12]  IEEE Standard for Spectrum Sensing Interfaces and Data Structures for Dynamic Spectrum Access and Other Advanced Radio Communication Systems, IEEE Standard 1900.6, 2011.

[13]  M. Al-Saidi, “A model formulation approach for system support engineering,” Ph.D. dissertation, Aero., Mech. and Manuf. Eng., RMIT Univ., Melbourne, Australia, 2014. Accessed on: June 15, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:161152/Al_Saidi.pdf

Books

Book with single author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

As discussed in [2], relays are used in everyday life.

Blackburn [2] states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Symmetrical components can be called the language of the relay engineer or technician" [2, p. 71].

Blackburn notes that "Symmetrical components can be called the language of the relay engineer or technician" [2, p. 71].

Reference list

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    J. L. Blackburn, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, 4th ed. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2014.

Books

Book with two or three authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

State all authors (up to three), using ‘and’ between the last two author family names when citing in-text.

Battery load calculation is discussed in [2].

Bayliss and Hardy [2] state that batteries . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The load on the battery is calculated from the power consumption characteristics" [2, p. 139].

Reference list

List all authors (up to three), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    C. R. Bayliss and B. J. Hardy, Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering, 4th ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Newnes, 2012.

Books

Book with four to six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Utilisation of digital circuits enables . . . [2].

Radulov et al. [2] discuss the use of digital circuits.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Digital circuits can only be utilized providing an appropriate translation" [2, p. 11].

Reference list

List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    G. Radulov, P. Quinn, H. Hegt, and A. van Roermund, Smart and Flexible Digital-to-Analog Converters, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2011.

Books

Book with more than six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Centrifugation is the first process in protein purification [2].

Lodish et al. [2] discuss methods for polymer and particle separation.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Rate-zonal centrifugation has proved to be a practical method for separating many different types of polymers and particles" [2, p. 93].

Reference list

If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author initials. Family name, or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    H. F. Lodish et al., Molecular Cell Biology, 7th ed. New York, NY, USA: W. H. Freeman and Co., 2012.

Books

Corporate author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name/corporate name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family/corporate name.

Arthropods have exoskeletons that are considered to be . . .[2].

The CSIRO Division of Entomology [2] consider the exoskeletons of arthropods to be . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Arthropods are metamerically segmented invertebrates" [2, p. 3].

Reference list

Place corporate name in the author position.

When citing a book by a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    CSIRO Division of Entomology, The Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers, 2nd ed. Carlton South, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 1991.

Books

Translated book

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The mobility of hydrogen atoms cause . . .[2].

Kupriyanov [2] recommends alternatives to oil and mercury vacuum pumps.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Hydrogen atoms are the simplest donor particles" [2, p. 185].

Reference list

Include the translated title and details such as language and translator directly after the title, all in italics.

When citing a translated book make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Translated from (original language) by Translator, Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    L. Y. Kupriyanov, Semiconductor Sensors in Physico-Chemical Studies Translated from Russian by V.Y. Vetrov, Burlington, VT, USA: Elsevier Science, 1996.

Books

Book chapter (in an edited book)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

There are two determining factors for the necessary length of insulators [2].

Wagenaar [2] contends that mineral oil . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Mineral oil expands and contracts with temperature" [2, p. 9].

Reference list

When citing a book chapter make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of the chapter," in Title of the Book, ed. (edition, except the first), Ed. (editor if available). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. chapter/s or first and last pages of the article.

[2]    L. B. Wagenaar, "Electrical bushings," in Electric Power Transformer Engineering, 3rd ed. J. H. Harlow, Ed. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2012, pp. 1-24.

Books

E-book from a database (without DOI)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Handset competition is discussed by [2].

Curwen and Whaley [2] evaluate the complexity of the mobile industry . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The handset market is extremely competitive" [2, p. 77].

Reference list

When citing e-books from a database without a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: database homepage URL

[2]    P. Curwen and J. Whalley, Mobile Telecommunications in a High-Speed World: Industry Structure, Strategic Behaviour and Socio-Economic Impact, Farnham, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2011. Accessed on: May 22, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral-proquest-com

Books

E-book from a database (with DOI)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

It is evident that small animals usually communicate at higher frequencies in contrast to larger animals [2].

Rossing [2] outlines the communication frequencies used.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Simple observations show that small animals generally use high frequencies for communication while large animals use low frequencies" [2, p.2].

Reference list

When citing e-books from a database with a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, abbrev. U.S. State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. DOI

[2]    T. Rossing, Ed., Springer Handbook of Acoustics, 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2015. Accessed on: May 27, 2017. [Online]. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0755-7

Books

E-book from the internet

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Impulse, step and sinusoid signals are used in the design and analysis of electrical and mechanical circuits [2].

The signals used in the design and analysis of electrical and mechanical circuits are detailed by Scharf [2].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

"The sinusoid is an idealized signal that models excitations that oscillate with a regular frequency" [2, Ch. 5, para. 5].

Reference list

When citing e-books from the internet make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[2]    L. Scharf, A First Course in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2012. Accessed on: May 20, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.freetechbooks.com/a-first-course-in-electrical-and-computer-engineering-t1038.html

Journal articles

Journal article with single author

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

A liquid level sensor circuit is designed . . .[3].

Ibrahim [3] carried out tests . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Ibrahim concluded that the "Accuracy of the sensor can be improved by increasing the microcontroller clock frequency or value of the charging resistor" [3, p. 179].

Reference list

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    D. Ibrahim, “Development of a low-cost educational liquid-level sensor circuit,” International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 168-181, 2015.

Journal articles

Journal article with two or three authors

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

State all authors (up to three), using ‘and’ between the last two author family names when citing in-text.

Atmospheric effects such as rain and fog can affect the transmission of free-space optical signals [3].

Song and Kam [3] contend that atmospheric effects such as rain and fog can affect the transmission of free-space optical signals.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Free-space optical (FSO) communications provide high data rate transmission with higher security and higher flexibility compared with conventional wireless communications." [3, p. 1120].

Reference list

List all authors (up to three), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    T. Song and P. Y. Kam, “Robust data detection for the photon-counting free-space optical system with implicit CSI acquisition and background radiation compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1120-1132, Feb. 2016.

Journal articles

Journal article with four to six authors

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Repair time and financial losses can be minimised by using the fault diagnosis system to restore a system to normal operation [3].

Biscaro et al. [3] contend that repair time and financial losses can be minimised by using the fault diagnosis system to restore a system to normal operation.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Biscaro et al. concluded that “The integrated system diagnosis and fault location will assist the electric utility personnel in their daily job in providing important information for operation and maintenance” [3, p. 435].

Reference list

List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    A. A. P. Biscaro, R. A. F. Pereira, M. Kezunovic, and J. R. S. Mantovani, “Integrated fault location and power-quality analysis in electric power distribution systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 428-436, Apr. 2016.

Journal articles

Journal article with more than six authors

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Simplicity in relation to the SOC estimation process is an important factor for portable devices using a small or single battery [3].

Chun et al. [3] concluded that simplicity in relation to the SOC estimation process is an important factor for portable devices using a small or single battery.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Chun et al. concluded that "In portable devices using a single or small-sized battery, simplicity and low power dissipation of the state of charge estimation process are important factors" [3, p. 262].

Reference list

If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author initials. Family name, "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    C. Y. Chun et al., “Current sensor-less state-of-charge estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries utilizing filtered terminal voltage,” J. Power Sources, vol. 273, pp. 255-263, Jan. 2015.

Journal articles

E-journal article with a DOI

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The static characteristics of the battery system are . . .[3].

Shao et al. [3] propose that a battery’s temperature, state of health and age can affect . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The observation equation needs to reflect the static and dynamic characteristics of the battery system" [3, p. 209].

Reference list

When citing e-journal articles with a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. DOI

[3]    S. Shao, J. Bi, F. Yang, and W. Guan, “On-line estimation of state-of-charge of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle using the resampling particle filter,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 32, pp. 207-217, Oct. 2014. Accessed on: May 24, 2017. [Online]. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2014.07.013

Journal articles

E-journal article from a library database

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The United States and Europe contribute to . . .[3].

Blau [3] contends that the United States and Europe contribute to . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"When it comes to the internet, Europe still plays a supporting role to the United States" [3, p. 4].

Reference list

When citing e-journal articles from a library database make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: database homepage URL

[3]    J. Blau, “Big demand for big data scientists in Europe,” Research Technology Management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 3-6, May/June 2015. Accessed on: May 26, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

Journal articles

E-journal article from the internet

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The elements in optical systems are outlined in [3].

The waveguide element is claimed as critical by Song and Tan [3].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Waveguide is one of the key elements on optical systems for the confinement and transmission of light" [3, p. 4].

Reference list

When citing e-journal articles from the internet make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[3]    C. Song and S. W. Tan, “A perspective on the rise of optofluidics and the future,” Micromachines, vol. 8, no. 5, May 2017. Accessed on: June 3, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.mdpi.com/2072-666X/8/5/152

Magazines

Magazine article, print

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The plane will have greater payload capacity if the energy storage system is lighter [4].

When considering reduction of payload capacity, Burke [4] concluded that the weight reduction of the energy storage system would be beneficial.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The lighter the energy storage system, the greater the payload the plane will be able to carry and sustain in flight" [4, p. 33].

Reference list

When citing magazine articles from a print source make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Magazine, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[4]    K. A. Burke, “High energy density regenerative fuel cells systems for terrestrial applications,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 23-34, Dec. 1999.

Magazines

Magazine article, online

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

As mentioned in [4], new machines will be as adaptable as our brains.

It is Rothganger’s [4] hypothesis that machines will become more like humans.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Rothganger describes artificial intelligence as "the dream of a thinking machine" [4, p. 24].

Reference list

When citing magazine articles from an online source make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Magazine, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

[4]    F. Rothganger, “Special report: can we copy the brain? The dawn of the real thinking machine,” IEEE Spectr., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 22-25, May 2017. Accessed on: June 2, 2017. [Online]. Available: IEEE database

Conferences

Conference paper, published in proceedings

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Adaptive filtering technology applied to engineering, is based on the implementation of adaptive algorithm [5].

Adaptive filtering technology applied to engineering, is based on the implementation of adaptive algorithm, as Lin, Tang and Huang [5] explain.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

According to researchers, "The realization of adaptive algorithm is the basis of application of adaptive filtering technology to engineering practice" [5, p. 1354].

Reference list

When citing a conference paper that has been published in proceedings make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of paper," in abbrev. Title of Proceedings, Place of Publication, Year (only if not already stated in title), pp. first and last pages of paper.

[5]    B. Lin, X. Tang, and X. Huang, "Research on fiber optic gyroscope adaptive filtering algorithm based on FPGA," in Proc. 2015 Int. Conf. Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), Los Alamitos, CA, USA, pp. 1354-1357.

Conferences

Conference paper, presented (not published in proceedings)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Once data packets have come into the internet network, users cannot control the path these packets take, even though users can select an ISP of their own choice [5].

Yang [5] explains that once data packets have come into the internet network, users cannot control the path these packets take, even though users can select an ISP of their own choice.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Today, users can pick their own ISPs, but once the packets have entered the network, the users have no control over the overall routes their packets take" [5, p. 1].

Reference list

When citing a conference paper that has been presented make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of paper, presented at the abbrev. Title and Year of Conference. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[5]    X. Yang, NIRA: A new internet routing architecture, presented at the ACM SIGCOMM FDNA 2003 Workshop. [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/newarch/DOCUMENTS/yang.nira.pdf

Reports

Report, print (individual author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The Black Knight program was purposely designed to test the aerodynamic behaviour of re-entry nose cones [6].

The aerodynamic behaviour of re-entry nose cones is discussed by James [6].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The surfaces of a boomerang have similar characteristics to an aircraft wing" [6, p. 3].

Reference list

When citing reports from a print source with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country, Report Number/Type (if available), abbrev. Month. (Day if available), Year of Publication.

[6]    M. L. James, “A history of Australia’s space involvement,” ANU, Canberra, Australia, Working Paper 241, Nov. 1991.

Reports

Report, print (corporate author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Skylab’s features and lifespan are fully discussed in [6].

The Apollo Telescope Mount was the largest piece of scientific equipment on Skylab, according to NASA [6].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The ATM had its own electricity-generating solar panels" [6, p. 18].

Reference list

When citing reports from a print source with an corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Organisation/company name, "Title of report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country, Report Number (if available), abbrev. Month. (Day if available), Year of Publication.

[6]    NASA, “Space flight: the first 30 years,” NASA, Washington, DC, USA, Rep. 1, 1991.

Reports

Report, online (individual author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The experimental design described in [6] allowed the engineer to measure the number of words correctly received by each listener.

Catellier and Voran [6] describe the design, implementation and analysis of a speech intelligibility test.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Catellier and Voran state that "There may be negative consequences for speech intelligibility even as it becomes particularly important to coordinate the new personnel" [6, p. 3].

Reference list

When citing reports from an online source with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country, Report Number (if not in title), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[6]    A. A. Catellier and S. D. Voran, “NTIA technical report TR-17-522: intelligibility of selected speech codecs in frame-erasure conditions,” NTIA, Washington, DC, USA, May 5, 2016. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/publications/3165.aspx

Reports

Report, online (corporate author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Completion of large construction projects contribute to projected revenue decline [6].

The demand for engineering consulting by the public sector is discussed by Windle [6] in an IBISWorld Industry Report.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

The report claims that the "Engineering consulting industry has contracted over the past five years as investment on large-scale infrastructure and mining-related projects has declined" [6, p. 6].

Reference list

When citing reports from an online source with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country, Report number, abbrev. Month. (Day if available), Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

[6]    P. Windle, “Engineering consulting in Australia,” IBISWorld, Melbourne, Australia, Rep. no. M6923, Feb. 2017. Accessed on June 15, 2017. [Online]. Available: IBISWorld database

Webpages

Webpage, individual author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

There are two instabilities which contribute to the poor efficiency of lithium-oxygen fuel cells [7].

Fleischman [7] describes the capacity fade which occurs when the electrolyte reacts with the electrodes.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

Fleischman reports that lithium-oxygen fuel cells are "seen as a promising candidate for future transportation-related energy needs" [7, para. 1].

Reference list

When citing webpages with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Webpage, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[7]    T. Fleischman, Stabilizing Molecule Could Pave Way for Lithium-air Fuel Cell, Apr. 25, 2017. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2017/04/stabilizing-molecule-could-pave-way-lithium-air-fuel-cell

Webpages

Webpage, corporate author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

It is reported in [7] that the Australian Energy Regulator (AER) will need to make new decisions regarding gas and electricity network pricing.

Energy Networks Australia [7] concludes that poor regulation will have impacts on service and reliability.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

Energy Networks Australia reports that "Neither the Court nor the Tribunal took the decision out of the hands of the AER" [7, para. 4].

Reference list

When citing webpages with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Organisation/company name, Title of Webpage, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[7]    Energy Networks Australia, Judicial Review of Energy Network Regulatory Decisions, May 30, 2017. Accessed on: June 1, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.energynetworks.com.au/news/blog/judicial-review-energy-network-regulatory-decisions

Audiovisual media

DVD

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Nanotechnology is a wide area because different sciences, materials, structures and production processes can be drawn from to produce various items [8].

Rees and Leslie [8] explain that nanotechnology is a wide area because different sciences, materials, structures and production processes can be drawn from to produce various items.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

"Nanotechnology is a broad field. It’s not linked to any particular kind of science, or material, or structural form, or production process, or any particular sort of product" [8].

Reference list

When citing a DVD make sure to include the following information where available:

Producer(s) name, Title of DVD, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Production Company, Year of Production. [Type of medium].

Note: If no Producer(s) are stated, use Director(s) instead.

[8]    R. Rees and C. Leslie, Nanotechnology: An Introduction, Bendigo, Australia: Rees Films, 2007. [DVD].

Audiovisual media

Streaming video

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Nanotechnology explores how matter is built on a small scale, from atoms to molecules [8].

As explained by KNH Productions [8], nanotechnology explores how matter is built on a small scale, from atoms to molecules.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

"Nanotechnology is about getting down to the fundamental building blocks of matter, to molecules and to atoms" [8].

Reference list

When citing a streaming video make sure to include the following information where available:

Production company, Title of Video, Year of Production. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

[8]    KNH Productions, N is for Nanotechnology, 2006. Accessed on: May 12, 2017. [Streaming video]. Available: Kanopy Streaming database

Audiovisual media

Video tutorial

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

When software is being developed, it needs to consider new additions, error fixing and an ongoing process of improvement or development [8].

Allardice [8] asserts that when software is being developed, it needs to consider new additions, error fixing and an ongoing process of improvement or development.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

As explained in [8, para. 6], "Software development needs to be responsive. We need to add new features, we need to fix bugs, we need to support continual development".

Reference list

When citing a video tutorial make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Video Tutorial, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

[8]    S. Allardice, Reviewing Software Development Methodologies, May 22, 2012. Accessed on: June 2, 2017. [Streaming video]. Available: Lynda.com database

Audiovisual media

Audio podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

At a tiny scale, and contrary to our expectations, material acts differently than at a larger scale [8].

Schiffrin [8] states that at a tiny scale, and contrary to our expectations, material acts differently than at a larger scale.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

According to Schiffrin, "We can look at a chunk of material, but at a small scale, and it behaves completely differently than what we might expect" [8].

Reference list

When citing an audio podcast make sure to include the following information where available:

Presenter(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of podcast,” Title of Show, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Place of Production City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Producer. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[8]    A. Schiffrin, “Materials go nano,” Science Extra, Jan. 8, 2017. Sydney, Australia: ABC Radio National. Accessed on: May 12, 2017. [Podcast]. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/scienceextra/materials-go-nano/8117286

Audiovisual media

Video podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

As women see things or think differently, they contribute different ideas to science [8].

Dhopade et al. [8] state, since women see things or think differently, they contribute different ideas to science.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

"Women do bring a different perspective to science and they think about things a little bit differently" [8].

Reference list

When citing a video podcast make sure to include the following information where available:

Presenter(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of podcast,” Title of Show, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Place of Production City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Producer. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[8]    P. Dhopade, S. Ober-Blobaum, E. Stride, A. Castro-Castellon, and E. Watson, “Women in engineering,” Women in Science, Aug. 1, 2016. Oxford, United Kingdom: University of Oxford. Accessed on May 12, 2017. [Vodcast]. Available: https://www.podcasts.ox.ac.uk/women-engineering

Other sources

Blog

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Updating the Kinect software has enabled the creators to track a maximum of 25 body joints; 20% more than the first version, and now including fists and thumbs [9].

Pterneas [9] relates that updating the Kinect software has enabled the creators to track a maximum of 25 body joints; 20% more than the first version, and now including fists and thumbs.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

"The initial version of Kinect allowed us to track up to 20 body joints. The second version allows up to 25 joints. The new joints include the fists and thumbs!" [9].

Reference list

When citing a blog make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of blog post,” Title of Blog, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[9]    V. Pterneas, “Kinect for windows version 2: body tracking,” Vangos Pterneas, Mar. 13, 2014. Accessed on: June 2, 2017. [Blog]. Available: http://pterneas.com/2014/03/13kinect-for-windows-version-2-body-tracking/

Other sources

Dataset

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The generated image [9] shows . . .

Ren et al. [9] generated an image of cold-sprayed titanium.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

The image displays "3D Compositional distribution of cold spray Ti after HT" [9].

Reference list

When citing a dataset make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of dataset, vol. (volume number), Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Publisher, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[9]    Y. Ren et al., Microstructures of cold-sprayed titanium before and after heat treatment, vol. 7, Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Data Collection, 2017. Accessed on: May 5, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://doi.org/10.4225/08/5913e0247881b

Other sources

Figures and tables

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets.

The developed fuzzy system cost model is displayed [9].

If citing a Figure in-text: For more details, refer to [9, Fig. 7].

Or, if citing a table in-text: For more details, refer to [9, Tab. 7].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Multiplying the outputs of the four cost models by the weighting factors and summing them up yields an interim level estimation, which is then fed into the fuzzy rule-based inference engine for further processing" [9, p. 32].

Reference list

When citing figures and tables make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of figure/table,” abbrev. Title of Publication, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), p. or pp. page(s) of figure, abbrev. Month. Year of Publication.

[9]    Y. Karatas and F. Ince, "Fuzzy system with two inputs and one output," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol. 31, no. 5, p. 32, May 2016.

Other sources

Patents, print

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The compass uses a magnetoresistive sensor [9].

Schierbeek and Schofield [9] describe a vehicle compass with an electronic sensor.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

The compass deviation compensation includes "an offset current strap for nullifying the vehicle deviation field" [9, para. 1].

Reference list

When citing a patent from a print source make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of patent,” Patent Number, abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[9]    K. L. Schierbeek and K. Schofield, "Vehicle compass with electronic sensor," United States Patent 5255442 A, Oct. 26, 1993.

Other sources

Patents, online

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

A better multinode temperature sensor is proposed [9].

Deby [9] recognised that improvements are possible.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

"The multi-node temperature sensor probe provides manifold advantages" [9, Desc. Sec.].

Reference list

When citing a patent from an online source make sure to include the following information where available:

Invention name, by inventor(s) initial(s). Family name(s). (Year, abbrev. Month. Day). Patent Number. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: database name

[9]    Multinode Temperature Sensor, by K. Deby. (2016, Dec. 13). Patent 2016102110. Accessed on: Mar. 29, 2017. [Online]. Available: AustPat database

Other sources

Personal communication

Examples of personal communication include:

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Engineers can develop long-term professional partnerships and contribute ideas with others when networking with peers in their industry [9].

Nguyen [9] stresses the importance of engineers developing long-term professional partnerships and contributing ideas with others, when networking with peers in their industry.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

"Networking with other engineers allows you to build long-term collaborations, as well as share ideas and experiences" [9].

Reference list

When citing a personal communication make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), private communication, abbrev. Month. Year.

[9]    L. Nguyen, private communication, Aug. 2016.

Other sources

Standard

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisation in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the organisation name.

Interoperability between sensors and clients was outlined in [9].

IEEE Standards Association [9] addressed the requirement for new technology.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

The standard "elaborates on the service access points, service primitives, as well as generic procedures used to realize this information exchange" [9].

Reference list

When citing a standard make sure to include the following information where available:

Title of Standard, Standard Number, Year.

[9]    IEEE Standard for Spectrum Sensing Interfaces and Data Structures for Dynamic Spectrum Access and Other Advanced Radio Communication Systems, IEEE Standard 1900.6, 2011.

Other sources

Thesis

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Uncontrolled events are challenging [9].

The model discussed by Al-Saidi [9] states . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

According to Al-Saidi, "Uncontrolled events are the supreme challenge that any system designer or operator could face" [9, p. 80].

Reference list

When citing a thesis make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of thesis," Type of thesis (Ph.D. dissertation or M.S. thesis), abbrev. Department, abbrev. University, Place of Publication City, abbrev. US State (if applicable, Country, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[9]    M. Al-Saidi, “A model formulation approach for system support engineering,” Ph.D. dissertation, Aero., Mech. and Manuf. Eng., RMIT Univ., Melbourne, Australia, 2014. Accessed on: June 15, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:161152/Al_Saidi.pdf

Using Chicago author-date

Introduction to Chicago

Important: this is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

The University of Chicago has developed several editions of the Chicago Manual of Style to aid authors in the preparation of manuscripts, which include referencing styles.

There are two systems outlined by the Chicago referencing style: Author-Date and Notes-Bibliography.

This guide use examples in the author-date system. The author-date system requires in-text citations within the paper, along with a full bibliographic entry in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Additional resources

RMIT University referencing guides (opens in a new window).

Using Chicago author-date

General rules for in-text references

Using Chicago author-date

Use a reference list to include all of the publications you have acknowledged at the end of your work, and use the heading References or Reference List on a new page.

General rules for the reference list

Using Chicago author-date

Example reference list

Below is an example of a reference list displaying various resource types including a book, DVD, journal article, legislation, newspaper article, social media entry and thesis.

Reference List

Bolin, Mary K. 2017. The 21st Century Academic Library: Global Patterns of Organization and Discourse. Cambridge, MA: Chandos Publishing.

Detlor, Brian. 2010. "Information Management." International Journal of Information Management 30, no. 2: 103-08, doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2009.12.001.

Dickson, Graham. “Immunology: Lecture 4,” ONPS2559: Clinical Immunology, (Melbourne, Vic: RMIT University, Aug 3, 2016). Vodcast/Podcast.

Domicile Act 1982 (Commonwealth). Consolidated, July 10, 2008. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/da198283/.

Fenna, Alan. 2004. Australian Public Policy. 2nd ed. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia.

Hitchcock, Alfred. 2001. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, DVD. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1959. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.

McMichael, Tony. 2005. "Rise of Deadly Disease is a Cultural Thing." The Sydney Morning Herald, October 17. Factiva.

Nelson, Renae S., and Philippe Valadon. 2017. "A Universal Phage Display System for the Seamless Construction of Fab Libraries." Journal of Immunological Methods 450 (November):41-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2017.07.011.

Stokes, Tim. 2014. “How to Manage a Business.” YouTube video, 8:23. Posted November 3. https://youtu.be/cKl-6u8Dcb0

Trask, Steven. 2017. “Adria Village Nursing Home Sanctioned After Aged Care Quality Agency Audit.” The Canberra Times, August 29.

Tudor, Ken. 2015. "Protecting Pets in Abusive Human Relationships." The Daily Vet, June 9. http://www.petmd.com/blogs/thedailyvet/ken-tudor/2015/june/pets-abusive-human-relationships-32819

Yousif, Kahlid. 2016. “3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping in Texture-less and Structure-less Environments Using Rank Order Statistics.” Ph.D., RMIT University. https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:161775/Yousif.pdf

Books

Book with single author

In-text paraphrasing

For a reference with one author, list the last name and year of publication.

Total Quality Management seeks to strengthen customer satisfaction by improving procedures, with continuous improvement and monitoring. Change is initiated by management, who provide leadership and a framework for employees to work within (Webb 2008)

In-text direct quote

Page number(s) should be included when using a direct quote. Add a comma then the page number(s) after the author's name and year.

According to Webb (2008, 22) Total Quality Management "...placed strong emphasis on good and visionary leadership, with management being responsible for initiating change".

Reference list

Author's Last name, First name. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Webb, Jela. 2008. Strategic Information Management: A Practitioner's Guide. Oxford: Chandos.

Books

Book with two or three authors

In-text paraphrasing

For a reference with two or three authors, list the last names and year of publication.

Marketing research concentrates on peoples' changing preferences and what influences them (Megginson, Byrd & Megginson 2000)

Reference list

The name of the first author is inverted and subsequent author’s names are given in the form in which they appear in the original source publication.

Author #1's Last Name, Author #1's First Name, and Author #2's First and Last Names. Year. Title of the Book: Sub-Title of the Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Megginson, William L, Mary Jane Byrd, and Leon C. Megginson. 2000. Small Business Management: An Entrepreneur's Guidebook. 3rd ed. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Books

Book with four or more authors

In-text paraphrasing

When citing four or more authors list the last name for the first author only, followed by et al.

Making uncertain decisions risk the possibility of undesired results (Bartol et al. 2011)

Reference list

Author #1's Last Name, Author #1's First Name, Author #2's First and Last Names, Author #3's First and Last Names and Author #4's First and Last Names, Year. Title of the Book : Subtitle of Book. Edition Number. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Bartol, Kathryn, Margaret Tein, Graham Matthews, Bishnu Sharma, and Brenda Scott-Ladd. 2011. Management Foundations: A Pacific Rim Focus. 3rd ed. North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill Australia.

Books

Book with an edition number

In-text paraphrasing

In-text citations do not include the edition number of a book.

Decision making resembles a mathematical mapping of input parameters into output decisions. All input parameters are premises with a value, which, when mapped together creates an output: the decision (Kizza 2014).

Reference list

Include the edition number followed by the abbreviation "ed." after the book title. There is no need to include edition information if no edition is mentioned.

Author's Last name, First name. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Kizza, Joseph Migga. 2014. Computer Network Security and Cyber Ethics. 4th ed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Books

Book chapter from an edited book

In-text citations

In citations from a chapter in an edited book, include the chapter author(s) and year.

Design can be a circular process where new ideas come into being, with the outcome often evading description until after the event (Glanville 2016).

Reference list

Chapter Author’s Last name, First name. Year. "Title of Chapter". In Title of Book, Editors(s) names, ed., chapter page range. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Glanville, Ranulph. 2016. "Design Prepositions". In Design as Research: Positions, Arguments, Perspectives, edited by Gesche Joost, Katharina Bredies, Michelle Christensen, Florian Conradi and Andreas Unteidig, 153-165. Basel: Birkhauser.

Books

Book with organisation as author

If a publication issued by an organisation, association or corporation carries no personal author's name, the organisation may be listed as the author followed by the year of publication.

In-text paraphrasing

Standards and binding styles for magazines, journals and other printed publications can vary, and it is up to the binder to ensure a style that is fit for purpose is selected, and the standard is met (Australian Government Publishing Service 1995).

Reference list

Name of Group/Organisation. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Australian Government Publishing Service. 1995. Australian Print Standards. Canberra: AGPS Press.

Books

Electronic book

In-text paraphrasing

The in-text citation for an electronic book should be the same as a printed book.

"Regenerative Development" recognises the connections between environmental, social and economic elements and their relationship to each other (Edwards 2010, 89)

Reference list

Author's Last name, First name. Year. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name. Media marker.

Edwards, Andres R. 2010. Thriving Beyond Sustainability: Pathways to a Resilient Society. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. ProQuest eBook Central.

Journal articles

Journal article (electronic)

In-text paraphrasing

When referencing a journal article include the author’s last name, year and a specific page range. Electronic sources do not always include page numbers - for such works it may be appropriate to cite a paragraph number or section heading.

While digital technology can be used to enhance care, it is important that systems and processes are considered and in place before the addition of technology (Binks 2017, 479).

Reference list

Chicago recommends the addition of a URL or DOI following the citation.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Title of Publication vol no, issue no: page number(s). doi:

Binks, Rachel. 2017. "District Nursing in the Digital Era." British Journal of Community Nursing 22, no. 10: 478-483. doi: 10.12968/bjcn.2017.22.10.478.

Journal articles

Journal article (print)

In-text paraphrasing

When referencing a journal article include the author’s last name, year and a specific page range.

. . .identifies internet technologies to support learning (Parikh 2002, 31).

Parikh (2002, 31) argues that. . .

Reference list

Author's Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Title of Publication vol no, issue no: page number(s).

Parikh, Mihir. 2002. "Utilizing Internet Technologies to Support Learning: An Empirical Analysis." International Journal of Information Management 22, no. 1: 27-46.

News sources

Newspaper article (print)

In-text paraphrasing

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book.

According to Carey (2015) gas prices. . .

Gas prices in Victoria have increased due to shortages in supply (Carey 2015).

In-text direct quote

Page numbers, if any, can be cited in the text but are omitted from a reference list entry.

Carey (2015, 2) states “The Coalition's argument is straight-forward; gas prices are too high because there is a gas shortage, but will fall once more gas is made available”.

Reference list

Author's Last name, First name. Year. "Article Title," Publication Name, date.

Carey, Adam. 2015. "Gas Wars Fire up in Victoria as Consumers Feel the Heat", The Age, October 15.

News sources

Newspaper article (online/database)

In-text paraphrasing

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book.

In-text direct quote

Sources such as webpages or online newspaper articles do not always include page numbers - for such works it may be appropriate to cite a paragraph number or section heading. For example, Smith (2018, para. 2) notes. . .

Reference list

Author's Last Name, First name. Year. "Article Title," Publication Name, Date of issue. URL.

Hannam, Peter. 2017. "How Twin Bursts of 'Unprecedented' Early-season Heat Scorched Eastern Australian." The Sydney Morning Herald, October 7, 2017. http://www.smh.com.au/environment/weather/how-twin-bursts-of-unprecedented-earlyseason-heat-scorched-eastern-australia-20171003-gyttd7.html.

News sources

News broadcast

In-text paraphrasing

Cite as you would for a book - for example "...the populist leader Sebastian Kurz, the world's youngest foreign minister, could become the world's youngest head of government at the age of 31" (Miller 2017).

Reference list

Writer/presenter. "News Item Title". Program Title. Network. Date Broadcast. Type of broadcast.

Miller, Barbara. "New Face set to keep Austrian Conservatives in Power." Lateline. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Thursday October 12, 2017. Television broadcast.

News sources

News broadcast (online or in a database)

In-text paraphrasing

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book.

In-text direct quote

Sources such as webpages or online newspaper articles don't usually have page numbers. If you are quoting from these sources, it is necessary to use a paragraph number instead e.g. Smith (2018, para. 2) notes. . .

Reference list

Writer/presenter."News Item Title". Program Title. Network. Date Broadcast. Type of broadcast. URL.

Long, Stephen. "Few Developments in Australia Have Aroused as Much Passion, as the Proposal by Indian Mining Colossus, Adani to Build a Giant Coal Mine in Queensland's, Galilee Basin." Four Corners. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Monday 2 October, 2017. Television Broadcast. http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/documentSummary;res=TVNEWS;dn=TSM201710020142.

Audiovisual material

DVD/VHS

In-text citation

The creator/producer family name and year is needed for an in-text citation.

To quote from audio-visual material use the format HH.MM:SS as a pinpoint, preceded by a comma.

This was the crucial moment of the movie (Rowling and Columbus 2001, 00:34:45).

Reference list

Producer's Last Name, First Name. Year. Title of Production. Medium. Directed by Director(s). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Rowling, Joanne. K. and Chris Columbus. 2001. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. DVD. Directed by Chris Columbus. Neutral Bay, NSW: Warner Bros. Entertainment Australia.

Audiovisual material

Podcasts/Vodcasts

In-text citation

The creator/producer family name and year is needed for an in-text citation.

To quote from audio-visual material use the format HH.MM:SS as a pinpoint, preceded by a comma e.g. Smith (2016, 00:21:18).

Reference list

"Title of podcast/vodcast," Year, Program, Medium, Date. URL.

"Episode 01: The Alibi." 2014. Serial, podcast audio, October 3. https://serialpodcast.org/season-one.

Audiovisual material

Radio broadcast

In-text citation

The creator/producer family name and year is needed for an in-text citation.

To quote from audio-visual material use the format HH.MM:SS as a pinpoint, preceded by a comma e.g. Smith (2016, 00:21:18).

Reference list

Producer's Last Name, First Name. Year. "Title of Episode." Title of Series, episode number, date aired. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Zsivanovits, Karin. "Julia Gillard Calls for More Preventative Mental Health Care," Big Ideas, aired 12, October 2017. (South Australia: ABC Radio National, 2017). Radio broadcast.

Audiovisual material

YouTube (or similar video)

In-text citation

The creator/producer family name and year is needed for an in-text citation.

To quote from audio-visual material use the format HH.MM:SS as a pinpoint, preceded by a comma e.g. Smith (2016, 00:21:18).

Reference list

Poster’s Last Name, First Name. Year. Title, online video, Running length time. URL.

Stokes, Tim. 2014. How to Manage a Business. YouTube video, 8:23. https://youtu.be/cKl-6u8Dcb0.

Webpages and social media

Website

In-text citation

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book.

For a website/blog post with no author, the title should be used instead.

If directly quoting from a source without a page number, use a paragraph number instead.

"The facade is dramatic but also mysterious, faceless, presenting white-painted brick and pine battens and with no visible openings" (Scrubt 2017, para. 3).

Reference list

Author. Year. "Title of Webpage." Website name (owning organisation), Date viewed/accessed. URL.

Scrubt, Mark. 2017. "Iceberg Palace: Halo House." ArchitectureAU, accessed September 30, 2017. https://architectureau.com/articles/halo-house/.

Webpages and social media

Blog post

In-text citation

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book.

For a website/blog post with NO author, the title should be used instead.

If directly quoting from a source without a page number, use a paragraph number instead.

There are many emerging literacies in academic libraries (Webber 2017).

Reference list

Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Blog. "Title of Blog Post," (blog). Date posted, Date accessed. URL.

Webber, Sheila. Information Literacy Weblog. "Call for Proposals: Emergent Literacies in Academic Libraries," (blog). October 10, 2017, accessed January 17, 2018. http://information-literacy.blogspot.com.au/2017/10/call-for-proposals-emergent-literacies.html.

Reports and standards

Government report

In-text citation

Cite as you would for a book. Include a page number for an in-text citation if it's a direct quote.

Organisations may be identified by an abbreviation, if appropriate - e.g., ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics).

Reference list

Name of Group/Organisation. Year. Title of Report. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name. URL.

CSIRO. 2015. Climate Change in Australia: Projections for Australia’s NRM Regions. Canberra: CSIRO. https://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/media/ccia/2.1.6/cms_page_media/168/CCIA_2015_NRM_TechnicalReport_WEB.pdf.

Reports and standards

Standards

In-text paraphrasing

Cite as you would for a book. Include a page number for an in-text citation if it's a direct quote.

Reference list

Standard Issuer Name. Year. Standard Title. Publisher (Standard Number).

Standards Australia. 2007. Temporary Fencing and Hoardings. SAI Global (AS 4687-2007).

Reports and standards

Australian Bureau of Statistics

In-text citation

Cite as you would for a book. Include a page number for an in-text citation if it's a direct quote.

Census data summary provides a snapshot of Australian population (ABS 2016).

Reference list

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). Year. Title of Report. Cat. No._____. Place of Publication, Publisher. URL.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). 2016. Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census. Cat. No. 2071.0. Canberra: ABS. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2071.0.

Reports and standards

Patent

In-text citation

Cite as you would for a book. Include a page number for an in-text citation if it's a direct quote.

Reference list

Patent owner’s Last Name, First Name. Year. Patent title. Patent Number, file Month Day, Year and issued Month Day, Year.

Cook, Fred C., and William H. Donaldson. 2010. Mega Yacht Mass Tracking System with Articulating Sail Feeder. US Patent US20100282152A1, file May 7, 2009, and issued November 11, 2010.

Other sources

Fact sheet

In-text citation

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book.

The information from the government was not clearly evident (Office of the Australian Information Commissioner 2011).

Reference list

Author’s Last Name, First Name or Organisation Name. Year. Fact Sheet Title. Place of Publication: Publisher. URL.

Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. 2011. FOI fact sheet 3: What information does the government hold?. Sydney: Australian Government. https://www.oaic.gov.au/freedom-of-information/foi-resources/foi-fact-sheets/foi-fact-sheet-3-what-information-held.

Other sources

Lecture notes

In-text citation

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book.

The lecture presented data communication and net-centric computing (Fry 2016).

Reference list

Author’s Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture." Format. URL.

Fry, Andrew. "Lecture 2 - Data Communication and Net-Centric Computing". COSC1111: Data Communication and Net-Centric Computing (Melbourne, RMIT University, March 8, 2016). Powerpoint presentation. https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/set/Courses/Content/CSIT/oua/cpt250/chapter/02/documents/L2Internetworking.pdf.

Other sources

Images/photographs from the Web

In-text citation

You must reference all photographs and images used in your assignments.

Figure 3: "The Elephant Walks at Night" (Pinkston 2017)

Reference list

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Year. "Title/description of Image/Photograph". Format. URL.

Pinkston, Wayne. 2017. "The Elephant Walks at Night". Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/pinks2000/38054867995/in/explore-2017-12-09/.

Other sources

Personal communication

Examples of personal communication include:

In-text citation

Personal communications, including email, text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.

"There was no indication of any sickness" (V. Smith, personal communication September 10, 2017).

Reference list

Information obtained from personal communication does NOT need to be included in the reference list, and should only be referenced in-text.